human evolution and survival

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Author:
roshellgist18
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105644
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human evolution and survival
Updated:
2011-12-10 21:40:44
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evolution
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test #2
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  1. analogies
    similarities between organ bases strictly on common function ( not descent) Ex: butterfly wings VS. bird wings.
  2. Homoplasy
    • leads to analogies
    • The separate evolutionary developmen of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms
  3. evolutionary systemics
    traditional approach to classification...evolutionary relationships between species depicted using phylogenetic tree
  4. Phylogenetic tree (phylogeny)
    • chart showing evolutionary relationships
    • - contains time factor
    • - implies ancestor- descent relationships
  5. Cladistics
    evolutionary relationships shown in a cladogram
  6. Cladogram
    • -Focuses on derived traits
    • a diagram of evolutionary relationships, "no time" factor
  7. derived trait
    • shown in descendent but not in ancestor
    • - Ex: bipedal humans but not apes
  8. ancestral trait
    a homology that is present in both ancestor and descendent species
  9. clade
    group of organisms that share a common ancestor
  10. What is a primate
    order of mammals that include 200+ species
  11. (primate geographical distrivutions)
    Abroreal
    Adapted to living in trees
  12. characteristics of primates
    • -prehensile hands and feet ( 5 digitd, opposable thumbs)
    • -stereoscopic vision, color vision in diurnal primates- active during the day
    • -nails not claws
    • -generalized detention (teeth used=all foods)
    • -omnivores
  13. New world teeth VS old world teeth
    • NW: 2 incisors-1 canine-3 premolars-3 molars
    • OW: 2 incisors- 1 canine- 2 premolars- 3 molars
  14. Forms of terrestrial locomotion
    • quaduped: usea all 4 limbs to support locomotion
    • Bipedalism: Walking upright on 2 legs
    • Knuckle-walking: gorrilas&chimps
  15. Forms of Aboreal Locomotion
    • Brachiating: arms swinging
    • vertical leaping&jumping
  16. Strepsirhini
    • **Suborder of primates:
    • -lorises, lumrs (smallest), galagos (nocturnal),tarsiers
    • Characteristics:
    • grooming claw, rhinarium(cat nose), toothcomb post orbital bar (eye socket)..except of tarsiers
  17. Cercopithecoidea
    • -OW monkeys
    • -sexual dimorphism
    • -ischial callousity on butt of baboon
    • -Estrous sweeling in female baboon
  18. Hylobatidae
    • -Lesser apres ( gibbons&siamangs)
    • -Monogamous pair bonds
    • - territorial
    • -whhops, calls
  19. Oragutangs
    • Family: Hominidae
    • -borneo&sumatra
    • -extreme sexual dimorphism
    • -quadrumanous (all limbs adapted to functionaing as hands)
  20. Gorillas
    • W. Subsaharan africa
    • marked sex dimorphism
    • knuckle walkers
    • vegetarian mainly
  21. Chimpanzees
    • (equatorial africa)
    • -knuckle walking, sometimes bipedalism
    • -cooperative hunting grps
    • -uses tools
    • -complex social behavior
  22. Banobas
    • *Same genus as chimps
    • -congo
    • -"Pygmy"
    • -less dimorphic
    • -less aggressive-> sexually active= strong male&female bonds
  23. How old is:
    - Universe& earth
    Earliest primates& Hominins came....
    • Universe= 13.7 billion
    • earth= 4.5 billion
    • earliest primates= 55 MYA
    • earliest hominins= 6-7 MYA
  24. Hominims
    • Humas& great apes
    • - modern humans and our bipedal ancestors
    • -dates to late miocene epoch
  25. Fossil
    any part of an organism that has been mineralized or has turned to stone
  26. Geology
    study of earth and processes that shaped it
  27. Taphonomy
    study of how bones and other materials came to be buried and fossilized
  28. Biases in the fossil record (inconsistencies)
    • - Geology ( geographic area)
    • - Time periods
    • - Content (in terms of tissue & harder bones preserve better)
    • -Taxonomy (larger anumals preserve better)
    • -Demography (more remains of adults than juveniles)
  29. When did the earliest primates arrive: what epoch and it occured at the end of what Era?
    • Arrived 65-68 MYA in the paleocene epoch
    • Occured after end of Mesozoic Era
  30. Plesiadapis
    • 56-58 MYA
    • lemure like, from N africa
    • - Paleocene epoch
  31. Eocene Epoch
    • -56-33 MYA
    • -1st "true" primates
    • - N. Africa, Europe, China
    • - Eusimias: an eocence antrhopoid primate 45 MYA China
  32. Oligocene Primates
    • -33-23 MYA
    • - Aegyptopitheus: Egypt (Fayum Loacality), oligocene anthropoid primate
  33. Anthropoid
    • -a Suborder of primates
    • -Manlike apes
    • -monkeys, apes, humans
  34. Miocene Primate
    • 23-25 MYA
    • - 1st hominoid primates
    • -africa, Europe&Asia
    • - Aboreal Quadrupeds
    • - Proconsul: 23-14 MYA, mix of OW monkey & ape traits, no tail.
  35. Dryopithecus
    • -Europe 16-11 MYA
    • -Hominoids
  36. Siviapithecus
    • - 15-7 MYA Asia
    • -Shares derived traies w/ modern orangutans
  37. Mosaic Evolution
    • Patters of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one system varies from the rate,pattern, of evolution in another scene.
    • -didnt all evolve together at the same time
  38. Archaelology
    The study of earlier human cultures thru the recovery & analysis of their material remains
  39. What are the branches of archaelology
    • Prehistoric
    • Historic
    • Classical
    • Maritime
  40. Prehistoric archaeology
    Prehistyor, before written records
  41. Classical Archaeology
    archaeology of classic states (greece, rome) near meditteranean sea& surrounding areas
  42. Historic archaeology
    after written records
  43. Maritime archaeology
    • Underwater archaeology
    • Nautical rchaeology- ships
  44. Archaeological record
    material remains of past human cultures including temporal and spatial relationships
  45. Context ( 2 kinds)
    • **Environmental setting in which artifacts are found
    • 1) primary= place of original deposistion
    • 2)secondary= where it was moved
  46. What is site survey & excavation
    • - General process of findign archaeological sites
    • - field survey, "walkovers"
    • -remote sensing
    • -aerial photgraphy
  47. What are the types of archaeological data and define them
    • - Artifacts: portable objects made by PPL
    • -Features: non portable, cant be excavated in 1 piece
    • -Ecofacts: culturally relevant but not made by ppl. Tells us about the environment around the site, non modifies organic material.
  48. Relative dating techniques
    • * No age
    • - items are ranked from youngest or oldest but no absolute age
    • *stratigraphy (layers of earth..lowest=oldest)
    • *superposistion
    • *flourine&nitrogen analysis
    • *cross dating
    • *seriation
  49. Principle of superposistion
    a lower layer/level is older than the higher one
  50. Biostratigraphy
    • -Based on changes in animals over time
    • - Using remains of animals to determine if one site is older/younger than another site, documenting changes in animals over time. using fossils in rocks to determins age
    • -existing sites during same period might have same kinds of animals.
    • ex: fossil pig skuli
  51. Flourine Analysis
    • Measure the amount of flourine in bones, absorbed from water
    • more FL= older
    • no age
  52. Nitrogen Analysis
    • More N2= younger
    • no age
  53. Cross- Dating (typology)
    • Estimates age of artifacts based on similarities with other materials of known age
    • No age
  54. Seriation
    • Orders artifacts chronologically based on the popularity
    • no age
  55. Chronometric dating techniques
    • -Gives age estimated in yrs
    • *radiometric decay
    • *Potassium- argon
    • *rasio-carbon dating
    • *Thermoluminescence
    • *dendrochronology
  56. Radiometric Decay
    • Measure the rate of decay of certain radioactive isotopes
    • gives age
  57. Potassium-Argon dating
    • -Based on the radioactive decay of potassium-40 into Argon-40 in volcanic materials
    • -used at early human sites because of its long "half life" which is 1.25 billion yrs
  58. Radio- Carbon dating
    • -Only good for organic material between 1,000-50,000 yrs old
    • -measures age of materials by measuring the decay of carbon-14
  59. Thermoluminescence
    • -Primarily used with ceramic artifacts b/c ceramics relase stored NRG of radioactive decay in the form of light once reheated at 500 C.
    • - once re heated, you can find out when it was last heated.
  60. Dendrochronology
    -Dating method on the study of yearly groth rings in ancient wood.
  61. Characteristics of anthropoids
    • -larger brain & general size
    • - reduced dependence of sense of smell
    • -greater color vision
    • -closed eye socket
    • -dimorphisms
    • diff blood supply
  62. Prosminians
    • - defined as primates not apes or monkeys
    • -lemurs, bushbabies, tarsiers
    • Strepsirhini suborder except for tarsiers

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