geology exam 1

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arrieta.stephanie
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geology exam 1
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2010-03-15 04:11:12
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geology exam
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  1. rivers and glaciers get their energy from?
    solar energy and the external heat engine
  2. the internal heat engine provides the energy for?
    earthquakes
  3. the earths tectonic plates are moved by convection in the?
    mantle
  4. all of the earth's oceans floor was created in ?
    mid ocean ridges
  5. what feature is found when two oceanic plates converge
    trench
  6. compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is
    less dense
  7. the deepest earthquakes are
    where plates are converging
  8. the himalaya mountains formed
    as two continents collided
  9. a rift valley would be founded where tectonic plates are
    diverging
  10. the hawaiian islands are
    over a hot spot in the mantle
  11. the atomic particle with a positive electrical charge is called the
    proton
  12. which of the followings elements would form cations?
    iron
  13. the sun's energy is produced by
    nuclear fusion
  14. an amoprhous solid is a
    glass
  15. the type of chemical bond that is most flexiable is the
    metallic
  16. a mineral must be a........
    solid
  17. what is an example of something that is not a mineral
    wood
  18. what is an example of something that is not a mineral
    oil
  19. metallic, glassy, dull, and non metallic are examples of
    luster
  20. which property is useful in identifying almost all minerals
    hardness
  21. a mineral that breaks into curved irregular fragments is demonstrating
    fracture
  22. mafic minerals are rich in
    iron and magnesium
  23. a volcanic rock with a mafic composition is called
    basalt
  24. an ingneous rock with two different sizes of crystals in it is
    porphyritic
  25. sharp angular lava is called
    aa
  26. cinder cones
    are entirely made of pyroclastic material
  27. the largest volcanoes are
    shield volcanoes
  28. the type of volcano made of andesite is
    composite volcano
  29. a good example of caldera is
    crater lake
  30. a nuee ardante is
    a glowing cloud of hot gas and ash
  31. a lava that erupts underwater would have
    pillow structure
  32. a felsic intrusive rock would be called
    granite
  33. mineral usually known as fools gold
    pyrite
  34. biotite is a type of
    mafic mica
  35. decompression or the lowering of pressure can cause a rock to
    melt
  36. the rate that the temperature increases with depth downward into the earths is the
    geothermal gradient
  37. according to bowen's reaction series the first silicate mineral to melt ad a rock is heated will be
    quarts
  38. an example of a mineral not apart of the bowen's reaction series
    gypsum
  39. polymorphs are different minerals with the same
    chemical formula
  40. calcite dolomite and malachite are
    sulfides
  41. a igneous structure that is cuts the bedding in older rocks is called
    dike
  42. igneous rock made of giant crystals is called
    pegmatite
  43. element
    • basic substance that can never be subdivided by any chemical or physical means
    • 92 in nature
  44. ion
    an atom (or group) that had gained or lost electrons and it had an electric charge
  45. isotope
    an atom of the same element with different mad and different number of neutrons
  46. atomic bonding and there are 4 types
    • METALIC BONDING: between cations substaines, flexiable, good conductors
    • COVALENT BONDING: between anions, strongest bong, brittle, poor conductors
    • IONIC BONDING: cation and anion, poor conductors brittle medium to soft hardness
    • WEAK BONDING: between groups of atoms, brittle soft to medium hardness, low melting point
  47. minerals
    an inorganic naturally occuring crystaline solid with a definite composition and definite physical and chemical properties
  48. earth materials
    rock and minerals
  49. external process
    wind water rivers streams glaciers waves currents
  50. nuclear fusion
    small atoms combined and matter is turned into energy
  51. internal process
    earthquakes volcanos tectonic plated movemnt
  52. nuclear fissions
    large atoms split apart and miss is converted to energy
  53. felsic rocks are
    • rich in silicon and aliminum
    • lighter in color
    • less dense
  54. polymorphs
    different minerals with the same chemical formula nut different crystal structure
  55. ingneous rock
    produced by melting other rocks
  56. 3 ways to melt a rock
    • 1. raising the temperature
    • 2. lowering the pressure
    • 3. add volatiles
  57. plutons
    body of solidfied magma
  58. dike
    cut through the layers in a country rock
  59. partial melting
    produces a magma more felsic then the original rock
  60. plutonic or intrusive igneous
    • form below the earths surface and form magma
    • crystalize slowly
  61. volcanic or extrusive igneous
    • format the earths surface
    • crystalize quickly from lava
  62. felsic lave
    • lower tempertaure higher viscosity
    • explosive
  63. mafic lava
    • higher temperature
    • lower visersity;
    • less explosive
  64. lava dome
    • made of felsic lava
    • small up to 6000 feet
    • steep
    • explosive
  65. cinder cone
    • made entirely of pyroclastic material
    • mafic (basalt)
    • gas, rich lava
    • small volcanoes
    • steep
    • often found in groups
    • can appear suddenly
    • can flow from the base
  66. stratovolcano or composite cone
    "classic volcano"
    • andesite intermedite composition
    • layers of lava and pyroclosticas
    • large up to 20000 ft
    • explosive
  67. shield volcano
    mafic lava
    • biggest up to 30000 ft high
    • not explosive
    • gental slope
  68. flood basalts
    • very fluid mafic lava
    • no cone
    • can cover huge areas of land 1000s of miles
  69. caldera
    huge volcanic crater formed when a volcano collapes down into a particle empty magma chamber
  70. xenolithla
    partically melted pieces of country rock included in the magma
  71. what 4 steps make sedimentary rock
    • WEATHERING: parent rock is turned away to sediment (or ions solution)
    • TRANSPORT: sediment is carried away by water (steams, rivers, glaciers, ice)
    • DEPOSITION: sediment accumulates in a new location
    • LITHIFICATION: the sediment is turned into sedimentary rock
  72. 2 types of weathering
    • phyisical or metranical weathering
    • the parent rock is broken into fragments called clast and the reason for that is abrasion (the impact of clast being transported)
    • Chemical weathering:
    • parent rock is dissolved
  73. carbonic acid
    • all rain is slightly acidic
    • weak acid (dose not affect living things)
  74. suffic acid or hydrochlorie acid
    • strong acid
    • problem by human pollition
  75. organic acid
    • plant roots
    • rotting vegitations
  76. sediment maturity
    increases when sediement is carried by water and wind
  77. depostion
    important enviornment of depostion
  78. lithification
    • turing sediments into rock
    • 1. compaction
    • 2. cementation crystals: crystal overgrows precipitate out from the ground water and lock grains together
  79. ground levels
    • 0 horizon: organic matter
    • A horizon: mixed organic and sediment
    • E horizon: zone of solution
    • B horizon: zone of accumuliation
    • C horizon: weather rock fragments

    solid rock
  80. chemical sedimentary rock
    made of material transported as ions in a solution usually
  81. organic sedimentary rock
    made of organic living materials

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