Respiratory System

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jenc
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105650
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Respiratory System
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2011-10-08 00:21:17
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Respiratory
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Respiratory System
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  1. what are the 2 major respiratory system processes?
    Ventilation of the lung and gas exchange
  2. What does the respiratory system work with to maintain homeostatsis?
    Cardiovascular system
  3. What are the major functions of the respiratory system?
    • gas excahnge,
    • regulate blood pH
    • produces vocal sounds
    • excretes excess water and heat
    • filters out impurities in air
    • sense of smell
  4. why do cells need oxygen?
    to produce ATP, which is the energy needed for all metabolic activity
  5. why is there CO2 in our system?
    a byproduct from metabolic reactions.
  6. why does CO2 need to be regulated?
    produces acidity
  7. CO2 plus H2O makes what?
    Carbonic acid H2CO3 which can turn to bicarbonate ion HCO3 + H. So as CO2 increases, so does the H, so you become too acidic. We then breather faster to try to expel more CO2
  8. What are the two functioning parts of respiratory system?
    • Conducting portion (conducts air into lungs, filters, warms and moistens air) and:
    • Respiratory portion where gas exchange occurs
  9. what does the conducting portion consist of?
    nose, pharynx, larynx,trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles
  10. what does the repsiratory portion consist of?
    tissues within the lungs where gas exhange occurs: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
  11. What does inhalation and exhalation result from?
    Presure changes coming from muscle relaxation and contraction
  12. what are the 4 distinct processes of respiration?
    • Pulmonary ventilation (breathing),
    • external respiration
    • transport
    • internal respiration
  13. what is pulmonary ventilation?
    breathing, moving air in and out.
  14. what is external respiration?
    gas exchange between lungs and blood; blood in pulmonary capillaries gain O2 and lose CO2
  15. explain respiration transport
    transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues by the systemic blood vessels.
  16. explain internal respiration
    gas exchange between the systemic blood vessels and tissues. Blood in systemic capillaries loses O2 and gains CO2, while blood in tissue loses CO2 and gains O2.
  17. What is celluar respiration?
    when tissues lose CO2 and gain O2
  18. What are the intercostal muscles?
    2 sets of muscles between the ribs
  19. what muscles are involved in inspiation?
    external intercostal muscles
  20. what muscles are involved in expiration?
    internal intercostal muscles
  21. what is the diaphragm?
    dome shaped muscle between thoracic and abdominal cavities
  22. what does the diaphragm do during inspiration?
    flattens and increases the volume in the thoracic cavity. This increase in volume means a decrease in pressure so air rushes in
  23. describe the steps of inspiration
    inspiratory muscles contract (diaphragm descends, rib cage expands), thoracic cavity increases increasing volume and lowering intrapulmonary pressure, air flows down pressure gradient into lungs until pressure equal with outside pressure.
  24. what happens during expiration
    inspiratory muscles relax (diaphragm rises), thoracic cavity volume decreases which increases pressure so air flows down pressure gradient to the outside until intrapulmonary pressure is zero.
  25. As alveoli pressure increases what does air do?
    flows out
  26. Describe tidal volume
    the air we breathe in and out during normal respiration
  27. what is inspiratory capacity volume?
    is your maximum inhale, the most air you can inhale at a time.
  28. explain expiratory reserve volume
    Extra volume that can be maximally exhaled following normal tidal exhalation.
  29. explain residual lung volume
    this is the air that remains in your lungs after you have exhaled as much as you can
  30. what is the functional residual capacity?
    • all the air remaining in your lungs after a tidal exhalation.
    • Sum of Residual Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume
  31. what is minute ventilation?
    total volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one minute. Equals tidal ventilation x number of breathes per minute.
  32. what is vital lung capacity?
    is the most you can breathe in and breath out. So your inspiratory capacity (including tidal) and the expiratory reserve
  33. describe total lung capacity
    it is all the lung capacites, incl the residual capacity.
  34. what does the p in pO2 or pCO2 mean?
    It refers to the partial pressure in the lungs or blood stream
  35. what does a spirometer measure?
    lung volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration.
  36. What is atmospheric pressure?
    It is the sum of all partial pressures in air. If atmospheric pressure is 760 then partial pressure for O2 is 21% x 760 (air is 21% oxygen)
  37. what is parital pressure?
    In a mix of gases, parital pressure is the pressure exerted by each gas in the mixture. If the partial pressure is higher, there is more gas. So 100mmHg contains more O2 than 40mmHg
  38. which contains more oxygen, venous blood or alveoli?
    more oxygen in alveoli (about 104 vs 40mmHg) which means O2 moves very quickly from alveoli to blood (about 0.25 seconds)
  39. what is the purpose of external respiration or pulmonary gas exchange?
    to oxygenate the deoxygenated blood
  40. where does internal respiration/systemic gas exchange occur?
    in tissues throughout the body. O2 diffuses from systemic capillaries into pheripheral tissue cells; CO2 diffuses in opposite direction.
  41. what factors influence the rate of gas exchange? (4 things)
    • surface area available
    • partial pressure difference
    • diffusion distance
    • molecular wieght and solubility of gases
  42. how is oxygen transported around body?
    98.5% is attached to haemoglobin (this is the haeme part), and 1.5% is dissolved in plasma
  43. How is CO2 transported around the body?
    • 7% is dissolved in plasma
    • 70% dissolved as bicarbonate ions
    • 23% bound to haemoglobin (globin part)
  44. During exercise is it easier or harder to release O2 from haemoglobin?
    easier
  45. Explain the negative feedback regulation of blood pH by the respiratory system
    Blood pH decreases (due to increase in H ions concentration); Chemoreceptors in medulla oblongata (central) and in aortic and carotid bodies (peripheral) detact change; send msg to inspiratory area in medulla oblongata; msg to effectors in diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles to increase respiratory rate and total volume so more CO2 expelled; less CO2 means fewer H ions so blood pH increases: homeostasis returned.
  46. what is the anatomic dead space?
    area in conducting airways containing air that doesn't undergo gas exchange
  47. what controls our basic rhythm of breathing?
    Medullary rhythmicity area within the medulla oblongata. It has 2 parts: inspiratory and expiratory areas.
  48. what does the inspiratory area control?
    during quiet breathing it controls the basic rhythm. Usually 2 secs inhalation (on) and 3 seconds exhalation (off).
  49. what does expiratory area do?
    helps with forced expiration
  50. describe elastic recoil of lungs
    natural tendency of thoracic walls and lungs to spring back once they have been stretched. Normal expiration requiries no muscle contraction, relies on elastic recoil.
  51. what is the function of the nose?
    • warms and moistens incoming air
    • detects olfactory stimuli
    • modifies speech
  52. where does air enter the body?
    usually through the external naris. These are 3 ridges inside the nasal cavity called conchae and they filters, warm and humidify incoming air.
  53. what is the role of the epiglottis?
    Manages food and air coming down laryngopharynx. Prevents food entering trachea, protects vocal cords and ventricular folds.
  54. describe pharynx
    passageway for food and air, resonating chamber for speech and houses tonsils. Divided into nasopharynx, oropharynx and layngopharynx.
  55. what is the function of tonsils?
    Participates in immunological reactions against foreign invaders.
  56. what is the larynx?
    short passageway connecting larynogopharnx with trachea
  57. what is the function of thyroid cartilage?
    Adam's apple; forms anterior wall of larynx and gives it a triangular shape.
  58. To do an emergency tracheotomy where would you cut?
    Between cricoid and thyroid cartilage
  59. what are the false vocal cords?
    ventricular folds: superior pair that protects vocal folds
  60. what are the true vocal cords?
    inferior pair of vocal folds.
  61. how is vocal sound made?
    the vocal folds vibrate and produce sounds when stretched, narrowing the glottis.
  62. what is the trachea more commonly known as?
    windpipe
  63. Describe the bronchial tree
    Trachea - primary bronchi - secondary bronchi - tertiary bronchi - bronchioles - terminal bronchioles
  64. what are the strucural changes as you move down the bronchial tree?
    Cartilage becomes less and finally none; smooth muscle increases as amount of cartilage decreases;
  65. Describe the two structural
    divisions of the respiratory system.
    • Upper respiratory tract – nose, pharynx and associated structures.
    • Lower respiratory tract – larynx, trachea, bronchi,
    • lungs.
  66. Describe the two functional
    divisions of the respiratory system
    • Conducting zone – interconnecting cavities and airways that moisten air and conduct it into the lungs- nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
    • bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles.

    • Respiratory zone – areas of
    • the lung where gas exchange takes place (must have alveoli)-respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli.
  67. Describe the pathway of air through the nose and
    nasal cavity.
    External nares, through superior, middle and inferior meatuses which are grooves between the superior, middle and inferior conchae of the nasal vestibule, internal naris. The nasal cavity is divided into left and right sides by the nasal septum.
  68. List the 3 functions of the nose.
    • 1. Warm, moisten filter air,
    • (2) detect olfactory (smell) stimuli, (3) resonance of speech vibrations.
  69. What structures increase the surface area of the nasal cavity to assist in filtering air
    • superior, middle and inferior
    • conchae
  70. What are the functions of
    the paranasal sinuses
    Production of mucus, resonating chambers for voice production, lightens bones of skull.
  71. List the 3 anatomical regions of the pharynx.
    Which are shared between the respiratory and gastrointestinal system?
    Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx. Oro and laryngopharynx have shared respiratory and gastrointestinal function.
  72. Which cartilages comprise the larynx?
    Epiglottis, larynx, cricoid, arytenoid (x2)
  73. Differentiate between ventricular and vocal folds
    Vocal folds (true vocal cords) are involved in sound production; ventricular folds (false vocal cords) protect the vocal folds and close the glottis (space between vocal and ventricular folds) during straining to lift or defecate.
  74. Which laryngeal cartilages move (due to laryngeal muscle contraction) to open and close the glottis in
    speech production?
    arytenoid
  75. What is the role of the epiglottis?
    • To close off the glottis during swallowing to
    • prevent food entering the larynx and trachea
  76. Which gastrointestinal structure lies directly behind the C shaped cartilage rings of the trachea?
    esophagus
  77. Where is the trachealis muscle found and what is
    its purpose?
    • Between the ends of the C shaped cartilage of the
    • trachea; to allow expansion and contraction of trachea during inhalation/exhalation and allow food bolus to pass through esophagus (immediately posterior) more easily during swallowing.
  78. What is the carina?
    • Specialised last tracheal cartilage band that
    • forms the bifurcation into left and right primary bronchi.
  79. Describe the branching pattern of bronchi and
    identify which structures each bronchi delivers air to.
    • Primary (lung) to secondary (lobar) bronchi to tertiary
    • (segmental) bronchi . Further branching but not specifically named.
  80. What does a terminal bronchiole terminate?
    The conducting zone
  81. Describe the changes in respiratory epithelium from nasal cavity to alveoli
    Generally decreses in thickness from columnar to cuboidal to squamous with progression to alveoli. Nasal cavity and nasopharynx=pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium; oro- and laryngopharynx = stratified squamous epithelium; larynx (below vocal folds), trachea and bronchi= pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium; larger bronchioles=ciliated simple columnar epithelium; terminal bronchioles= simple cuboidal epithelium; alveoli=simple squamous epithelium
  82. Describe the changes in cartilage distribution
    from trachea to bronchioles.
    Cartilage decreases with progression through airways. Trachea & primary bronchi =C shaped/incomplete rings; smaller bronchi = plates of cartilage in wall; bronchioles=no cartilage in wall.
  83. How many lobes are there in the left and right lung
    Left = 2 lobes; Right=3 lobes
  84. Describe the membranous layers that cover the
    lung and line the thoracic cavity.
    • Parietal pleura lines thoracic cavity; visceral pleura
    • covers lung; pleural cavity between with serous fluid
  85. Why does trauma to one lung not necessarily
    affect the other lung?
    Each lung is enclosed in a separate double layered pleural membrane and they are separated by mediastinum.
  86. What is the role of pleural fluid?
    • Reduce friction between membranes allowing
    • them to slide easily during breathing.
  87. Where are the base, apex and hilus of the lung located?
    Base sits on diaphragm; apex is just above clavicle, hlius is found on medial surface (facing mediastinum) and is where primary bronchi enter lung and blood vessels enter and exit
  88. Differentiate between a terminal bronchiole and
    a respiratory bronchiole.
    A terminal bronchiole terminates the conducting zone; a respiratory bronchiole has at least one alveoli in its wall and starts the respiratory zone.
  89. What structure leads into an alveolar sac?
    alveolar duct
  90. What 2 types of alveolar cells make up an
    alveolus and what is the role of each?
    Type 1 Alveolar cell=simple squamous epithelial cell that forms the alveolar wall; Type II alveolar cell= rounded epithelial cells that secrete alveolar fluid with surfactant.
  91. What is surfactant and what is its role?
    Surfactant is a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins which lowers surface tension of alveolar fluid and reduces the tendency for alveolar collapse.
  92. Which muscle is primarily responsible for ventilation of the lung?
    Diaphragm
  93. What is the first step in causing the volume and
    pressure changes necessary for inhalation?
    Contraction of the diaphragm (and external intercostal muscles).
  94. Which accessory muscles assist the diaphragm during maximal inspiration?
    • External intercostal muscles, sternocleidomastoid,
    • scalenes
  95. Which muscles are active in forced exhalation?
    Internal intercostals, abdominals
  96. Subatmospheric pressure in which space causes
    the thorax and lung to move in tandem?
    Pleural cavity
  97. What is elastic recoil and what two forces contribute to it
    • Elastic recoil is the natural tendency for elastic
    • structures to spring back after being stretched. The surface tension of alveolar fluid and recoil of lung elastic fibres that where stretched during inhalation contribute to elastic recoil.
  98. Define surface tension
    inward force tending to collapse alveoli caused by polar water molecules that are attracted to each other
  99. Define lung compliance
    a measure of how easily the lungs can be stretched, pressure difference required to cause a change in volume.
  100. Define airway resistance
    resistance to flow caused by friction between air molecules and airway wall.
  101. How does surface tension, lung compliance and airway resistance affect ventilation of the lung?
    • surface tension –reduction of surface tension reduces effort required to inflate alveoli therefore ventilation increases for given level of effort.
    • lung compliance- high compliance=less effort (pressure difference) required to ventilate lung; low compliance =(stiff lung), more effort required to ventilate lung.
    • airway resistance- increased resistance (airway
    • narrowing) requires more effort to maintain ventilation.
  102. Explain Dalton’s law
    Dalton’s law each gas in a gas mixture exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present, ie. in proportion to the % of the total gas mixture it occupies.
  103. Why does more CO2 stay dissolved in blood than
    O2?
    Because the solubility of CO2 is 24 times greater than that of oxygen.
  104. What are the diffusion paths of oxygen and
    carbon dioxide during external and internal respiration?
    External respiration –O2 moves from alveolus to pulmonary capillary blood and CO2 from pulmonary capillary to alveolus

    Internal respiration -O2 moves from systemic capillary blood to tissues and CO2 from tissues to systemic capillary blood
  105. What causes oxygen to enter pulmonary
    capillaries from alveolar air and to enter the tissue cells from systemic
    capillaries?
    The partial pressure difference for O2 , gas will move from a region of high partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure.
  106. How does partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen
    change as altitude increases?
    PO2 drops because atmospheric pressure drops with altitude, O2 still occupies 21% of air mix but total pressure is reduced.
  107. What is the most important factor in determining
    how much oxygen binds to haemoglobin?
    The partial pressure of oxygen; the higher the PO2 the more O2 combines with Hb.
  108. What relationship does the oxygen-haemoglobin
    dissociation curve show?
    The percentage saturation of haemoglobin at any specific PO2 level
  109. What does the term affinity mean when describing the binding of haemoglobin to
    oxygen?
    Affinity describes ease or the ‘tightness’ with which Hb binds O2.
  110. Describe 3 factors that influence the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen.
    As PCO2 increases and pH decreases the affinity of Hb for O2 declines. As temperature increases the affinity of Hb for O2 decreases.

    These changes, increased temperature, more CO2 production and hence a decrease in pH, all occur during exercise. When you are exercising it is advantageous for the affinity of Hb for O2 to decrease so that more oxygen can be delivered to the exercising tissue. This is a useful way to remember the direction of change to Hb affinity.
  111. Write the equation describing formation of hydrogen ion and bicarbonate from CO2 and H2O.
    • CO2 + H2O
    • H2CO3
    • H+ + HCO3-
  112. Describe the location of the respiratory centre and the 3 areas that comprise it.
    Pons and medulla- medullary rhythmicity centre in medulla oblongata, pneumotaxic area in pons, apneustic area in pons
  113. Which nerves covey impulses from the respiratory centre to the diaphragm
    Phrenic nerves
  114. How are the apneustic and pneumotaxic areas related to the control of respiration?
    • Apneustic area –send stimulatory signals to the
    • inspiratory area that cause long, deep inhalation.

    • Pneumotaxic area – transmits inhibitory signals to
    • inspiratory area to shorten inhalation and prevent lungs becoming too full of air
  115. Where are the central and peripheral chemoreceptors located?
    • Central =In or near medulla oblongata; peripheral=
    • carotid and aortic bodies
  116. What is the normal arterial PCO2?
    40mmHg
  117. What is hypercapnia?
    Increased level of PCO2 above normal (40mmHg).
  118. What happens to the rate and depth of breathing when the PCO2 is elevated?
    Depth and frequency of breathing increase in negative feedback mechanism to reduce PCO2
  119. How do proprioceptors affect respiration?
    They increase rate and depth of breathing as soon as muscles start moving
  120. What is the inflation reflex?
    Stretch receptors in the bronchial/bronchiolar walls prevent overinflation of the lungs by inhibiting the inspiratory area
  121. What is a normal range for pH in systemic arterial blood?
    7.35-7.45
  122. What 3 mechanisms allow removal of H+ from the blood?
    Buffer systems, exhalation of CO2, excretion of H+ in urine
  123. How do proteins and bicarbonate ions help maintain the pH of body fluids?
    Protein- buffers both acids (H+ added to NH2 when H+ high) and bases (H+ released from COOH when H+ low), Hb buffers H+ when O2 has been released

    Bicarbonate- HCO3- buffers H+ to form H2CO3 when H+ high, H+ released from H2CO3 when H+ is low
  124. What is likely to happen to your blood pH if you hold your breath for 30 seconds?
    Increase H+ so decreased pH
  125. What are acidosis and alkalosis?
    • Acidosis-condition in which blood pH is less than 7.35
    • alkalosis-condition in which blood pH is greater than 7.45
  126. What are the major physiological effects of acidosis and alkalosis?
    • Acidosis- CNS depression via decreased synaptic
    • transmission, disorientation, coma, death

    Alkalosis- CNS and PNS overexcitability caused by increased synaptic transmission, causes muscle spasms, convulsions, death.
  127. Which is a factor that does NOT affect haemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?
    respiratory rate

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