integumentary system.txt

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mhunger
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105661
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integumentary system.txt
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2011-10-01 22:05:43
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integumentary system
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integumentary system - Ivy Tech A&P 101
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  1. epidermis 5 layers
    stratum corneum, s. lucidum, s. granulosum, s. spinosum, s. basale
  2. stratum basale
    only layer of epidermis to have living tissue
  3. stratum lucidum
    only found on thick skin - think callus
  4. layers of integument
    epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
  5. integumentary system
    made of skin (cutaneous membrane - epidermis & dermis), hypodermis and accessory organs
  6. Major functions of integumentary system
    protection, temperature regularion, sensory regulation, vitamin D synthesis
  7. Minor functions of integumentary system
    blood reservoir, excretion
  8. Hypodermis
    below the dermis; subcutaneous layer with adipose tissue, collage, elastic fibers, blood vessels and special nerves; also subcutaneous layer. Function is to bind the integument ont othe underlying structures (muscle) and storage of energy
  9. Dermis
    below the epidermis; made of dense irregular connective tissue, blood vessels, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
  10. Papillary layer
    very uneven top layer; holds Meissner's corpuscles (for sense of touch). Dermal papillae create fingerprint ridges
  11. Reticular layer
    made of irregular connective tissue; makes up most of the dermis. Holds Pacinian corpuscles (sense receptors for deep pressure), hair follicles and sweat glands
  12. Hair follicles
    in reticular layer, connected to a band of smooth muscle - arector pili
  13. Epidermis
    outermost layer of skin - made of stratified squamous cells; made of 5 layers
  14. Cell types in the epidermis
    keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel cells
  15. Keratinocytes
    primary cell form for epidermis, form keratin fibrils
  16. Melanocytes
    form pigment (melanin)
  17. Langerhans cells
    macrophages, immune system
  18. Merkel cells
    nerve branches for touch
  19. stratum basale
    deepest layer - germinating cell layer, rapid cell division; merkel and Melanocytes
  20. stratum spinosum
    Langerhans cells fight infection, shape of cells is caused by strong adhesion junctions
  21. stratum granulosum
    thin layer, contains granules of melanin and glycolipids (for waterproofing)
  22. stratum lucidum
    found only in thick skin - no melanin
  23. stratum corneum
    top layer - thick layer of dead squamous cells
  24. Meissner's corpuscles
    tactile - in papillary layer; feels smooth and rough
  25. skin pigementation chemicals
    melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
  26. melanin
    produces colors from pink - brown - black; produced by melanocytes; protects DNA from UV radiation; everyone has about the same number of melanocytes per square inch of skin; faster melanin production due to vitamin D production
  27. carotene
    yellow/yellow-orange pigment; present in s. corneum and adipose tissue; stored there from diet
  28. hemoglobin
    protein found in the blood - produces pink pigmentation
  29. jaundice
    liver malfunction
  30. Addison's disease
    adrenal malfunction - bronzing of skin
  31. accessory organs
    hair, nails, sweat glands
  32. hair
    shaft, bulb, hair papilla, root, cuticle, cortex and medulla
  33. follicle
    bulb (papilla, root plexus, matrix), follicle walls (connective sheath, epithelial sheath), arrector pili
  34. shaft
    part of the hair above the surface of the scalp - dead material
  35. bulb & root
    living part of the hair root, contains a small area of hair papilla tissue which supplies the hair bulb with nutrients
  36. connective sheath
    makes up the outer layer of the hair follicle
  37. epithelial sheath
    makes up the inner layer of the hair follicle
  38. arrector pili muscles
    bundle of smooth muscle, which raises the hair in response to fear, cool surface temperatures and as a protection mechanism
  39. nails
    development as a scalelike modification - function is to help pick up objects and to scratch an itch - also keeps Meissner's & Pacinian corpuscles at the the right distance beneath the epidermis to work properly
  40. baldness causes
    ideopathic; male pattern (testosterone); protein deficient diets, antidepressants, blood thinners, chemotherapy, actuely high fever, severe emotional trauma
  41. sudoriferous glands
    eccrine, sebaceous, apocrine, mammary, ceruminous
  42. eccrine glands
    found all over body; secretion is mostly water, salt & urea; thermoregulation for the body; ducts empty directly onto skin surface; scentless
  43. sebaceous glands
    associated with hair; turn on during puberty; releases sebum (oily); causes blackheads & acne; keeps hair supple & not dry; scented
  44. apocrine glands
    associated with hair; turn on during puberty; found in axillary and genital areas; secretions contain water, salt & urea along with proteins and lipids (which act as nutrients for bacteria); ducts empty into hair follicles; scented
  45. mammary
    specialized sweat glands; secrete milk (calcium, protein)
  46. ceruminous
    modified apocrine gland located in lining of ear canal; produce earwax; main function is protection

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