Major Bacterial Genera

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Anonymous
ID:
105674
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Major Bacterial Genera
Updated:
2011-10-01 22:47:32
Tags:
microbiology med school ross university medical bacteria genera s3m1 s3
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Description:
The major bacterial genera broken down by diagnostic tools, such as Gram staining, cell structure, and metabolic ability. Also includes some prefix and suffix definitions.
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  1. Gram positive cocci include what 3 major genera?
    • Staphylococci - grows in grape-like clusters
    • Streptococci - grows in pairs or chains
    • Enterococci - grows in pairs or chains
  2. What does the catalase test differentiate?
    • + reaction: Staphylococci
    • - reaction: Streptococci or Enterococci
  3. What does coagulase testing differentiate?
    • + reaction: Staphylococcus aureus
    • - reaction: all other Staphylococci, which are normal flora; only S. saprophyticus and epidermidis are pathogenic
  4. ID the bug:
    - Gram-pos cocci in grape-like clusters
    - Catalase and coagulase positive
    - Beta-hemolytic
    - Grows yellow colonies on mannitol-salt agar
    Staphylococcus aureus
  5. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos cocci in pairs/chains
    Catalase negative
    Alpha-hemolytic
    Infects bloodstream and CNS
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae, aka Viridans Strep
    • Most common alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus
  6. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos cocci in pairs/chains
    Catalase negative
    Beta-hemolytic
    Causative agent of many URIs and strep throat
    Streptococcus pyogenes
  7. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos cocci in pairs/chains
    Catalase negative
    Gamma-hemolytic
    Group D Lancefield Streptococci
  8. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos cocci in pairs/chains
    Lancefield Group D antigen positive
    Resistant to bile salts
    Normal GI flora
    Enterococcus species
  9. Gram positive rods can be divided based on what two criteria?
    • Spore-forming vs non-spore forming
    • Aerobic vs Anaerobic
  10. ID the bug, and where they can be found:
    Gram-pos rod
    Spore-forming
    Aerobic
    • Bacillus
    • Found in soil and water
  11. ID the bug, and where they can be found:
    Gram-pos rod
    Spore-forming
    Anaerobic
    • Clostridium
    • Found in soil, water, and human GI tract
  12. ID the bug:
    Gram-positive rod (sometimes club-shaped)
    Non-spore forming
    Aerobic
    Normal flora except one
    • Corynebacterium
    • Normal flora, except C. diptheriae
  13. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos rod
    Non-spore forming
    Aerobic
    Normal flora of mouth, vagina, and GI
    Lactobacillus
  14. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos rod
    Non-spore forming
    Aerobic
    Can grow as low as 4*C
    Facultative intracellular
    Exhibits tumbling motility
    Listeria
  15. ID the bug:
    Gram-positive rod
    - filamentous and branching
    - can also stain partial acid-fast
    Non-spore forming
    Aerobic
    Found in soil and water
    Opportunistic
    Nocardia
  16. ID the bug:
    Gram-pos rod
    - filamentous and branching
    Normal flora
    Anaerobic
    Actinomyces
  17. ID the bug:
    Gram-neg cocci
    Grown on chocolate agar in 5% CO2
    Colonize mucosal surfaces
    - associated with or in PMNs
    Oxidase positive
    • Neisseria spp
    • mostly non-pathogenic
    • two pathogenic species are N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis
  18. How can you differentiate between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae?
    • By the sugars they ferment:
    • N. gonorrhoeae only ferments glucose
    • N. meningitides ferments maltose and glucose
  19. ID the bug:
    Gram-neg coccobacilli (actually bacillus)
    Found in water and soil
    Can colonize skin
    Antibiotic resistant
    Important nosocomial pathogen
    Acinetobacter
  20. ID the bug:
    Gram-neg coccobacilli (actually bacillus)
    Normal upper respiratory flora
    Cause of otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, among others
    Moraxella
  21. What are the two major groups/families of Gram neg rods?
    • Enterobacteriaceae
    • Non-enterobacteriaceae
  22. What are three properties common to all enterobacteriaceae?
    • Glucose fermenters
    • Oxidase negative
    • Normal flora of human GI tract
  23. What two tests are used to differentiate enterobacteriaceae?
    • Growth on MacConkey agar (tests lactose fermentation)
    • Growth on Hektoen enteric agar, to test H2S production (differentiates non-lactose fermenters)
  24. What are the four main lactose-fermenting Gram-neg rods?
    • Escherichia
    • Klebsiella
    • Serratia
    • Enterobacter
  25. What are the four main non-lactose fermenting Gram-neg rods?
    • Proteus
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Yersina
  26. ID the bug:
    Gram-neg rod
    Ferments glucose and lactose
    Oxidase negative
    Normal flora, but can cause many infections, especially GI and UTIs
    Escherichia
  27. ID the bug:
    Gram-neg rod
    Ferments glucose and lactose
    Oxidase negative
    Normal flora, but can cause pneumonia, UTI, GI, and others
    Klebsiella
  28. ID the two bugs:
    Gram-neg rod
    Ferments glucose and lactose
    Oxidase negative
    Normal flora, but often cause infections in hospitalized patients
    Serratia and Enterobacter

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