MEA 200 Oceanography Midterm #2

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MEA 200 Oceanography Midterm #2
2011-10-02 14:43:02
MEA 200 Oceanography Midterm NCSU Dr Showers

oceanography midterm #2
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  1. Most common grain size of a marine sediments are?
    sand, silt & clays
  2. Sediment sorting is a function of?
  3. oceans are how old?
    over 4 billion years old
  4. oldest marine sediments are how old?
    200 million years old
  5. which type of sediment form oozes in the deep sea?
  6. what is the most biogenous sediment in the ocean?
    carbonate shell and hard parts
  7. neritic sediments are of known origin and are composed primarily of _____ sediments?
  8. What are the thickest sediments located on the ocean floor?
    continental rise
  9. where are the thinnest marine sediments found?
    mid-ocean ridges
  10. what type of plankton makes it's shell out of carbonate and is an animal?
  11. what type of plankton makes it's shell out of silica and is a plant?
  12. where is a possible location to store radioactive waste in the deep sea?
    fine grained clays deposited in deep ocean basins
  13. what carbonate chemical species is stable if deep ocean waters were alkaline (ph ~ 10)?
    carbonate CO3
  14. what is the pH of phosphate detergent and Tums anti-acid medicine?
  15. what is the CCD?
    calcite compensation depth
  16. what factors effect biogenic ooze accumlation?
    • 1) productivity of surface waters
    • 2) destruction by dissolution
    • 3) dilution by continental sources
  17. which one of the following properties is NOT the result of hydrogen bonding in water?
    low heat capacity
  18. what properties ARE the result of hydrogen bonding in water?
    • 1. cohesion
    • 2. adhesion
    • 3. capillary action
    • 4. blue color of water
  19. as the salinity of water increases (salt is added), what is true?
    • 1. heat capacity decreases
    • 2. freezing point decreases
    • 3. osmotic pressure increases
  20. why are the major ions constituents that make up the salt in the ocean in constant proportions no matter what the salinity content?
    the residence time of the major ions is relatively long compared to the mixing times
  21. why are the temperature and salinity measurements so important in oceanography?
    temp and salinity determine sensirt and affect patterns of water circulation
  22. why do equatorial surface waters have low salinities?
    excess rainfall from rising air masses
  23. what liquid will remove more heat from your skin if you put a drop of equal size on rhw back of your hand?
  24. low pressure areas along the equator form tropical depressions that can form hurricanes (typhoons in the pacific), in what direction fo the air masses flow at the ocean surafece in the northern hemisphere in these types of dangerous storms?
    eastwad and cyclonic or counter clockwise
  25. why does sound and light paths bend when they enter water
    density differences
  26. what depth does 1% of the light energy stricking the ocean surface penetrate to (depth of the photosynthetic zone)?
    100 meters
  27. what area of the ocean is poorly stratified, has not developed a thermocline, and has low surface salinities?
    high latitude polar oceans
  28. sound velocity in the ocean?
    reaches a minimum around -1000 m
  29. why are coastal waters commonly colored green/
    particles in the water scatter light
  30. what type of circulation occurs in a low pressure zone?
    hot air rises
  31. where does the ITCZ (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone) move the most (morth/south) during the course of a tear and produce large rainfall events (monsoons)?
    the Indian Ocean
  32. what is an El Nino condition?
    a period of weak equatorial upwelling and weak circulation - warm equatorial waters
  33. in the Global Hydrological Cycle, where does the most precipitation occur?
    over the continents
  34. going from the surface to deep water the halocline is a zone of rapidly _____ between the upper surface and deep water masses.
    decreasing salinity
  35. conservative water mass properties are only effected by
    mixing and diffusion
  36. where is the coriolis effect the least noticeble (weakest)?
  37. where in the ocean does the Dissolved oxygen gas concentration decrease to a minimum?
    thermocline/pycnocline waters
  38. if the average velocity of sound in the ocean is 1500 m/sec and a sonar ping takes 6 seconds to return to the phydrophone, how deep is the water?
    4500 meters
  39. what is the average mixing time in the present day world's ocean waters?
    1500 years
  40. what are the characteristic of the polar front?
    unstable (position migrates) wet low pressure front
  41. wherer do climate models predict will the highest rate of global warming will occur during the next century?
    north polar areas
  42. what powers a hurricane's violent winds?
    latent heat of condensation
  43. where do monsoons occur?
    • 1. africa
    • 2. india
    • 3. indonesia
    • 4. australia
  44. which type of front has gentle rains over a wide band?
    warm front
  45. as sea surface temperature continues to increase, what do we expect will happen with tropical cyclones?
    destructive power will increase
  46. since the 1875 the cool La Nina periods have
    decreased in number and intensity
  47. the coriolis effect increases with latitude only on objects the are moving, which of the floowing does NOT have an observable deflection due to this effect?
  48. the coriolis effect increases with latitude only on objects the are moving, which of the following DOES have an observable deflection due to this effect?
    • 1. winds
    • 2. ocean currents
    • 3. intercontinental ballistic missiles
  49. which area of the corld's ocean would not have a well developed sound velocity minimum zone?
  50. during the Cretaceous period 80 million years ago atmospheric CO2 was 4X higher than present, what large change did this produce?
    sea level was about 200-300 meters higher than present
  51. when sunlight hits the earth and is reflected back into space the wavelength ____?
    becomes longer
  52. what fossil fuel energy source may dominate in the next century?
    methane gas hydrates
  53. which way does the night breeze blow at the beach?