Chem 31: Chapter 9

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Chem 31: Chapter 9
2011-10-02 16:01:46
Chemistry Midterm Chapter

Vocabulary terms from Chapter 9 for Chem 31L
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  1. Energy
    The capacity to do work or produce heat
  2. Law of Conservation of Energy
    Energy can be converted from one form to another, but can neither be created nor destroyed.
  3. Potential energy
    Energy due to position or composition
  4. Kinetic energy
    Energy due to motion of an object
  5. Frictional heating
    The transfer of energy that accounts for the "missing energy" when energy changes from form to form
  6. Heat
    The transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature difference
  7. Temperature
    Reflects the random motions of particles in a particular substance
  8. Work
    Force acting over a distance
  9. Pathway
    Decides how energy is divided between work and heat
  10. State function
    Property of a system that depends only on its present state, not its past or future
  11. System
    The part of the universe on which we want to focus our attention
  12. Surroundings
    Everything in the universe outside the system
  13. Exothermic reaction
    Energy flows out of a system
  14. Endothermic reaction
    Energy flows into a system
  15. Thermodynamics
    The study of energy and its interconversions
  16. First Law of Thermodynamics
    The energy of the universe is constant.
  17. Internal energy
    The sum of kinetic and potential energies in a system
  18. Enthalpy
    The change in energy plus the change in pressure-volume of a system
  19. Molar heat capacity
    Energy required to raise 1 mol of a substance by 1 degree Kelvin
  20. Calorimeter
    Device that experimentally determines the heat associated with a chemical reaction
  21. Calorimetry
    The science of measuring heat
  22. Heat capacity
    the amount of energy required to increase an objects temperature; factors in object's mass
  23. Specific heat capacity
    The heat capacity per gram of substance
  24. Molar heat capacity
    Heat capacity per mole of substance
  25. Coffee cup calorimeter
    Studies energy changes in reactions under conditions of constant pressure
  26. Bomb calorimeter
    Studies energy changes in reactions under conditions of constant volume
  27. Hess's Law of Heat Summation
    In going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps.
  28. Standard enthalpy of formation
    The change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mol of a compound from its elements with all substances in their respective standard states.
  29. Standard state
    The reference state for a material's thermodynamic properties
  30. Fossil fuels
    The product that results when plants are burned, resulting in energy that can be harnessed
  31. Petroleum
    A thick, dark liquid composed of hydrocarbons
  32. Natural gas
    Usually associated with petroleum deposits; consists of methane, ethane, propane, and butane
  33. Pyrolytic cracking
    Process invented by William Burton to increase the yield of gasoline obtained from petroleum
  34. Coal
    Formed from the remains of plants that were buried and subjected to pressure and heat over long periods of time
  35. Infrared radiation
    Energy that has passed from the Sun, through the atmosphere, to Earth's surface, but is not reflected back into space
  36. Greenhouse effect
    Net amount of thermal energy is retained by Earth's atmosphere, making it warmer than it would be without the atmosphere