353 Antihypertension drugs

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capinto
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353 Antihypertension drugs
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2011-10-02 16:36:42
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353 Antihypertension drugs
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353 Antihypertension drugs
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  1. What are thiazides?
    • -Diuretic
    • - main drug is hydrochiorthizdie
    • -drug ends in -zide or -one
    • -Commonly used
    • -Reduce BP by reduction of blood volume and reduction of arterial blood resistance
    • -Adverse effect- hypokalemia
    • -SE: dehydration, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, orthostatic hypotension
  2. What are loop diurectics?
    • -Diurectic
    • -Act on ascending loop of Henle by increasing excretion of Na and Cl. Na and water are lost, but so is K, Ca, and Mg
    • -Lasix (Furosemide)
    • -SE: loss of fluids/electrolytes, orthostatic hypotension, ototoxicity (hearing impairment, deafness, vertigo)
  3. What is Potassium-Sparing Diuretics?
    • -Diuretic
    • -Degree of diuresis induced by the K+ sparing diuretic
    • -Same as aldostone receptor blocker
    • -Modest hypotensive effects
    • -Aldactone (spironolactone)
  4. What are Beta Blockers/B adregic blockers?
    • -Sympatholytic
    • - Reduces cardiac output by diminishing SNS, low HR, contractility and renin release
    • -SE: low BP and Pulse, sexual dysfucntion, depression, nightmares, early signs of hypoglycemia
    • -DO NOT give with patients who have asthma
    • -Corgard (Naldolol), Tenormin (Atenolol), Lopressor (metoprolol, Toprol EL)
  5. What are Centraling Acting Alpha Agonists?
    • - Sympatholytics
    • -Clondine (Catapres)
    • -Acts on brainstem, suppress sympathic outflow to heart and blood vessels
    • -Low HR, low contractility, vasodilation,low renin release
    • -Side effects: Dry mouth, sedation, dizziness, bradycardia, impotence, servere rebound hypertension
  6. What are Angiotenision II Receptor Blockers?
    • -Blocks binding of angiotension II to receptors, which blocks the vasoconstricting and aldosterone secreting effects of angiotension II
    • -SE: Insomnia, HA, Dizziness, Muscle cramps, back or leg pain, nasal congestion, angioedema
    • -cozaar (Losartan)
  7. What are ACE Inhibitors?
    • -Given a lot
    • -Angiotension Converting enzyme, this lowers BP. It inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme which inhibits the formation of angiotensin II and release of aldosterone
    • -When aldosterone is blocked, Na is excreted along with water, K is retained
    • -African American and older adults do not respond to ACE inhibitors unless taken with diuretic
    • -Angioedema can lead to asphyxia even if the patient has been on for a long time
    • -Lisinopril (Prinivil) (Zestril), Capoten (Captopril)
  8. What are direct vasodilators?
    • -Acts by relaxing the smooth muscles of blood vessels, causing vasodilation
    • -SE: reflex tachycardia, palpitaitons, restlessness, agitation, nausea, confusion
    • -Nitroglycerin (treat angina)
    • -Apresoline (Hydralazine hydrochloride)
    • -Nipride-Nitropress (nitroprusside soduim)
  9. What are Calcium Channel Blockers?
    • -Ca channel blocking agents prevent the movement of extracellular Ca into the cell
    • -In angina pectoris, the drug improves the blood supply to the myocardium by dilating coronary arteries and decrease the workload of the heart by dilating peripheral arteries.
    • -Cardizem (Diltiazem), Procardia (Nifedipine), Calan, IsoptinSR (verapamil)
    • -contraindicated in clients with renal, hepatic dysfunction
    • -SE: Flush, HA, dizziness, ankle edema, bradycardia, AV block
  10. What are the different Sympatholytics?
    • -Alpha 1: Promotes dilation of A and V
    • -Beta 1: Reduces HR and contractility
    • -Beta 1: Suppresses release of Renin
    • SE: Hypotension, bradycardia, fatigue, dizziness, N/V, erectile dysfunction, edema, Hepatic toxicity
    • Alpha/Beta Blockers: Coreg (Carvedilol), Trandate (labetolol hydrochloride)
  11. What are Alpha 1 blockers?
    • -Blocks alpha-adrenergic receptors resulting in vasodilation (A&V) and lower BP
    • SE: profound orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, faintness, lightheadness, high HR
    • -Minipress (prazosin hydrochloride), Cardura (Doxazosin mesylate)

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