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Name the two girdles and limbs that compose the appendicular skeleton
- Pectoral girdle
- Pelvic girdle
- Upper limbs
- Lower limbs
What does the Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle consist of?
Scapula and clavicle
What does the clavicle articulate with? (2 things)
- Sternum (sternoclavicular joint)
- Scapula (acromioclavicular joint)
How is the scapula held in place?
Where is the upper limb attached?
To pectoral girdle at shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
Name the triangular flat bone found in upper back region
Scapular spine ends as _______ process
- (a sharp ridge widening to a flat process)
What forms shoulder joint with head of humerus
What is present for muscular attachments to scapula?
Supraspinous & infraspinous fossa
What is the subscapular fossa on the scapula filled with?
_______ process for muscle attachment on scapula
How many bones are in the upper limb?
Name the joints in the upper extremity (5)
- 1. shoulder (glenohumeral)
- 2. Elbow
- 3. Wrist
- 4. Metacarpophalangeal
- 5. Interphalangeal
The radius and ulna articulate with the ________
Where is the interosseous membrane located?
True or false: radius and ulna articulate with each other at BOTH ends
How many bones are in the wrist (carpal)?
In how many rows are the bones in the carpal arranged?
Tunnel of bone & flexor retinaculum in which tendons of digits are located
What are the 4 parts of the metacarpals?
- 1. base
- 2. shaft
- 3. head
- 4. knuckles (metacarpophalangeal joints)
How many phalanges in total?
Singular form of phalanges
What are the parts of the phalanges (except the thumb)
- 1. proximal
- 2. middle
- 3. distal
- (on each finger)
Two hipbones (coxal bones) united at pubic symphysis
What does the pelvic girdle articulate with?
Articulate posteriorly with sacrum at sacroiliac joints
What is composed of the three bones: ilium, pubis & ischium
Each hip bone
When and where does the hip bone fuse?
After birth at acetabulum
What is the largest bone in the hip bone?
What is the iliac crest for?
What is the joint found in the hip bone?
What is the Greater Sciatic Notch for?
Obturator foramen is closed by _____ ___________
Inferior and posterior part
Jointed anteriorly to the pubis
Anterior and inferior part
pubic symphysis is pad of fibrocartilage between 2 pubic bones
What is composed of the: sacrum, coccyx & 2 hip bones?
Sacral promontory to symphysis pubis
Separates false from true pelvis
What does the false pelvis do?
Only holds abdominal organs
What does the true pelvis do?
Holds reproductive organs
Male or female pelvis:
larger and heavier
larger articular surfaces
larger muscle attachements
Male or female pelvis:
wider & shallower
larger pelvic inlet & outlet
more space in true pelvis
pubic arch greater than 90 degrees
How many bones in each lower limb?
Name the 3 joints in the lower extremity
Longest and strongest bone in body
Head articulates with acetabulum
Neck is common fracture site
Sesamoid bone (develops in tendon)
Incresases leverage of quadriceps femoris tendon
Medial & larger bone of leg
Proximal tibiofibular joint
Medial malleolus at ankle
Not part of knee joint
Muscle attachment only
Lateral malleolus at ankle
How many bones does the proximal region of food contain?
7 tarsal bones
articulates with tibia and fibula
Midregion of the foot
5 of them
Each with base, shaft, and head
Distal portion of foot
Similar in numbrer and arrangement to the hand
Distribute body weight over foot
Yield and spring back when weight is lifted
Arches of the foot
Where are the arches located on each foot?
- Longitudinal arches along each side of foot
- Transverse arch across midfoot region