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Electromagnetic radiation
Contains electrical and magnetic fields that simultaneously oscillate in perpendicular planes through space, allowing energy to propagate mediums

Wavelength
The distance between two consecutive crests or troughs of a wave

Frequency
Number of cycles per second that pass a given point in space

Hertz
Common unit for frequency

Blackbody radiation
Radiation that originates solely from an idealized object that absorbs all radiation

Ultraviolet catastrophe
A radiation profile with no maximum that goes to infinite intensity at very short wavelengths

Photoelectric effect
The phenomenon by which electrons are emitted from the surface of a metal when light strikes it

Dual nature of light
The phenomenon by which light exhibits properties of both waves and particles

deBroglie's Equation
Derived the relationship between a particle's wavelength and momentum

Diffraction
The scattering of light from a regular array of points or lines

Continuous spectrum
Contains all the wavelengths of visible light; not quantized (ex. white light)

Line spectrum
Only a few lines result, each corresponding to a discrete wavelength (ex. hydrogen emission spectrum)

Bohr's quantum model
The electron in a hydrogen atom moves around the nucleus only in certain "allowed" orbits

Ground state
Lowest possible energy state

Wave/quantum mechanics
Approach to describing atoms taken by deBroglie and Schrodinger, in which emphasis was given to the wave properties of the electron

Wave function
An electron's coordinates in (x,y,z) form

Operator
A set of mathematical instructions for describing wave function

Orbital
A specific wave function for an electron

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
There is a fundamental limitation to just how precisely we can know both the position and momentum of a given particle at a given time.

Probability distribution
indicates the probability value of an electron at a given point in space

Radial probability distribution
Total probability of finding the electron in a hydrogen atom at a particular distance from the nucleus

Principle quantum number
Related to the size and energy of an orbital

Angular momentum quantum number
Relates to the shape of an orbital's subshell

Magnetic quantum number
Relates to the orbital's orientation in space

Nodal surfaces
Orbital areas with zero probability of having an electron

Degenerate orbitals
All orbitals with the same energy

Electron spin quantum number
fourth quantum number; can equal +1/2 or 1/2

Pauli Exclusion Principle
In a given atom, no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers.

Polyelectronic atoms
Atoms with more than one electron

Effective nuclear charge
The apparent nuclear charge

Selfconsistent field (SCF) method
A method in which a given electron is assumed to be moving in a potential energy field that is a result of the nucleus and the average "electron density" of all other electrons

Triads
Groups of three elements with similar properties, as discovered by Johann Dobereiner

Octaves
An arrangement by John Newlands that suggested properties of elements repeat in eights

Aufbau Principle
Protons are added one by one to the nucleus, to "build up" the elements; electrons are similarly added to these atomic orbitals.

Hund's Rule
The lowestenergy configuration for an atom is the one having the maximum number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli principle in a particular set of degenerate orbitals.

Valence electrons
the electrons in the outermost principal quantum level of an atom

Core electrons
The inner electrons

Lanthanide series
A group of 14 elements corresponding to the 4f orbitals

Actinide series
A group of 14 elements corresponding to the 5f orbitals

Rare earth elements
The lanthanide and actinide series

Main group/Representative elements
Groups 1A8A

Penetration effect
An outer electron can "penetrate" the core electrons and "feel" more of the nuclear charge

Shielding
The process by which inner electrons can protect outer electrons from partially feeling nuclear charge

Ionization energy
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous electron or ion

Koopman's Theory
The ionization energy of an atom is equal to the energy of the orbital from which it came

Electron affinity
The energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom

Atomic radii
Half the distance between atoms

Metalloids/Semimetals
Elements thta exhibit both metallic and nonmetallic properties

