Histology Mini1 Part2

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Histology Mini1 Part2
2011-10-05 17:21:19
Histology Mini1 Part2

HIstology Mini1 Part2
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  1. types tissues
    • epithelium
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  2. Cell types with basal lamina
    • Epithelia, muscles, adipose cells, schwann cells
    • aka basement membrane
    • connective tissue
  3. Produced by the epithelial cells
    Laminin, entactin, proteoglycans, collagen IV network
  4. Produced by the fibroblasts
    reticular fiber, anchoring fibrils, and fibrilnectin
  5. anchoring fibrils
    collagen VII
  6. Lamina Densa Ground substance
    Collagen IV meshwork
  7. Lamina reticularis, blood vessel lining and liver/Thymus ground substance
    • reticular fiber
    • collagen III
    • Ehlos Danlos Syndrom
  8. Ehlos Danlos Syndrom
    • Collagen III (and I) deficiency.
    • Enlarged organs
    • Stretchy skin
    • bursing vessels
  9. Collagen I
    • tripple helix of tropocollagens
    • III(reticular) forms fibers only, I and II can form bundles
    • made in the rough ER
  10. Marfan's Syndrom
    • Fibrillin gene mutation
    • weakened elastic fibers
    • aortic and atrial ruptures
  11. Sun damage
    • produce deep wrinkles
    • damages fibrillin microfilaments
  12. Proteoglycan aggregates
    Proteoglycans bound to none sulfated hyaluronic acid chains with linker proteins
  13. Proteoglycans
    • GAG and a protein core
    • looks like a toilet brush
    • attracts water by attracting + electrolytes
    • in all ground substance (aggrecan), some transmembrane linkers (syndecan) and as some binding sites for growth factors
  14. Squamous
    • simple
    • stratified none keratinized
    • stratified keratinized
    • SS - site of fluid and gas transfer (lungs and blood vessle endothelial cells
    • StraSNK-skin with dead cell on top
    • StraSK - mucous membrane - vagina esophagus
  15. Cuboidal
    • Simple
    • Stratified
    • Simple - protection and secretion - ovary covering, kidney tubules, duckts of glands
    • Stratified - ducts of larger glands, exocrin glands and sweat glands
  16. Columnar
    • Simple
    • stratified
    • pesudo-stratified
    • SC - Secretion and protection of the digestive tract. Stomach, small inestine and gall bladder lining
    • StraC- Ducts of large glands - vas deference, uterus and salavery glands
    • PesudoStraC- TRACHEA cilliated with goblet cells and epididymis with long microvilli (stereocillia)
  17. StereoCillia
    • Looks like cillia (clumping under LM)
    • but is actually microvilli
  18. Microvilli
    • Actin microfilliment deformed plasma membrane
    • for absorption and increasing surface area
    • forms brush boarder
    • instestinal and renal cells for absorption
    • inner ear and taste buds for sensory
  19. Cillia and Flagella
    • 9/2 microtubles
    • for movement and sensing
    • in kidneys and all the sexy parts
  20. Ectopic Pregancies
    • 95% in the uterine tube, bleeding and tube rupture is serious
    • Some are bottom of the uterus
    • rarely in the overies
    • and some are abdominal and uterin rectal space
  21. Embroy anti-immunity
    • IL-2 and other cytokines to fight against maternal immunity
    • HLA-G blocks binding of T cells
  22. karatagener syndrome
    • Dynenin arm defect
    • cilia defect
    • 20% complete situ inversus (cilia defect during 3rd week of development)
    • Male infertility (flagella defect)
    • respiratory disease (respiratory cilia defect)
  23. Holoprosencephaly and synophthalmia
    • mutation of the sonic hedge hog gene failure to specificy midline during development
    • alcohol abuse during first month of pregancy where EtOH selectivly kills midline cells
  24. Sirenomelia
    • Caudal Dysgensis
    • Lateral plate mesoderm didn't migrate
    • maternal diabetes
    • fused lower limb buds
  25. Sacrococcygeal teratoma
    primitive streat remnant after 4th week will grow in to a tumor.
  26. Gastroschisis
    • incompete lateral fold during development
    • missing part of the anterior body wall, all your guts and shit come out.....
  27. anacephal and spina bifida
    anterior and posterior neuropore incomplete closure (respectivly)
  28. unipolar cells have...
    • two branches but only one axonal process coming off cell
    • dentritic branch is pretty much the dentrite
  29. Golgi stain
    • silver percitipation (heavy metal percipitate)
    • neurons and glial cells
  30. motor neuron location
    CNS - spinal cord and brain
  31. sensory neuron location (body)
    PNS - ganglions
  32. Oligiodendrocytes
    • CNS only
    • CNS schwann cells
    • can wrap multiple axons with myline sheets
  33. Astrocyte
    • CNS only - most numerous
    • protoplasmic (gray) and fibrous (white)
    • highly expression of glial fibrilar acid protein
    • supplies neurons with nutrients from blood
    • forms scar tissues
  34. Microglial
    • brain maphrophage
    • monocyte precursor
    • phagocytosis of debris and damaged structures of CNS
    • AIDS dementia - due to infection of microglial cells in the CNS
  35. Ependymal cells
    • lines and produces the ventricles and CSF of the brain and central canal
    • cuboidal or low columnar
    • cilia to move the CSF at coroid plexus
  36. Multiple Sclerosis
    • demylination of the CNS by
    • 1. autoimmune again myline
    • 2. autoimmune again oligiodentrocyte
  37. Schwann Cell
    • neuro crest progenitor
    • mesaxon is where the wrapping ends/begins - the lip of the outter layer
    • saltatory conduction through nodes of ranvier
    • produces endonurium(lose connective tissue) of the PNS axon bundle
  38. Schmitt-lanternman Cleft
    traped cytoplasm of the schwann cells in the myline sheets
  39. PNS Nerve Bundle Perinurium
    • Perinurium bundles up several PNS axons with layers of flattened epithlial cells (not epithelium because it lacks connective tissue)
    • Blood nerve barrier
    • prevent bacteria and macro molecues from coming in contact with the nerve axons
  40. no question about it, don't argue with me!!!
    don't play music ok, you are going to be in big trouble if i catch you
  41. Sinous Veinous
    arachnoid projections into the the dural space to drain the CSF
  42. Glial Lamitans
    barrier formed by the pedicles of the astrocytes making up the barrier up against the pia matter
  43. BBB
    blood brain barrier formed by the endothelial cells of the capillaries supplying the CNS with tight junctions
  44. Cerebeller cortex
    • molecular layer (apical - dendrites)
    • purkinje layer (cell bodies)
    • granule cell layer (smallest neural cells)
    • below that is white matter
  45. Periphery Axon regeneration
    • 1. chromatalysis - lose the basophilic color, decrease in nissle bodies (rough ER and ribosome combo)
    • 2. anterograde /Wallerian degenerations: distal degeneration of the axon past the point of the injury
    • 3. regeneration and guided through schwann cord
  46. Nissel bodies
    in neurons, a combination of rough ER and free ribosomes that are used for synaptic vessicle production
  47. Traumatic Neuroma
    • generated post nerve injury as axons try to repair and find its schwann chord
    • large bulbous nerve ending cannot find its schwann chord and produce pain
  48. Perikaryon
    = soma = cell body = nerve cell
  49. Dentritic spine
    where a dentrite synaps with an axon
  50. Meissner's Corpuscle
    epithelial receptor that detects light touch