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2011-10-02 20:26:54
psych exam chapter

chapter 1
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  1. You eavesdrop as several psychologists eat lunch together. After reading the first chapter in your psychology textbook, you can correctly identify which psychologist as a behaviorist?
    Dr. Lightman, who says, "I believe that early learning experiences have shaped my actions as an adult."
  2. Your notes about William James would most likely include which term?
  3. Which Greek philosopher first espoused the idea that people are motivated by a pleasure principle?
  4. Which of the following schools of thought focused on breaking conscious experience into its component parts?
  5. An extension of the behavioral perspective that incorporates the study of mental processes is termed:
    social-cognitive theory
  6. A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression
    represents anger turned inward
  7. A humanist would give which explanation for aggression?
    Aggression increases when people become frustrated by not being able to meet their goals
  8. Which early school of psychology is associated with the method of introspection?
  9. According to Freud, abnormal behaviors, like phobias, are
    shaped by early experiences
  10. Which of the following mental health professionals is most likely a behavior therapist?
    Dr. Barney, who uses techniques based on learning principles to help clients alter maladaptive behaviors
  11. Which of the following is the most complete definition of psychology?
    Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
  12. Which perspective in psychology would suggest that obesity is related to unresolved childhood needs for love and support?
  13. Ethnic minorities make up approximately what portion of the population in the United States?
  14. The founder of behaviorism was
  15. "You alone know what is good for you," said Dr. Philips, "You need to make a conscious choice to change your behavior and start being true to your self." Dr. Philips most likely subscribes to which psychological perspective?
  16. "You alone know what is good for you," said Dr. Philips, "You need to make a conscious choice to change your behavior and start being true to your self." Dr. Philips most likely subscribes to which psychological perspective?
  17. An eclectic psychologist is one who;
    employs the theories and principles of different psychological perspectives.
  18. Which perspective is most responsible for bringing issues related to diversity to the forefront of psychological research?
  19. Which of the following early pioneers of psychology became the first scientist of the mind?
  20. Your psychology professor asks a student volunteer to concentrate on an apple and describe the individual elements of that experience. Your professor is demonstrating the technique of
  21. Which of the following psychologists is most likely to study how humans process information?
    Dr. Carlson, a cognitive psychologist
  22. The major proponent of behaviorism for much of the twentieth century was
  23. Which perspective in psychology would suggest that depression is related to changes in brain chemistry?
  24. An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience is characteristic of which school of psychology?
  25. Compared to Freud, neo-Freudians place less emphasis on;
    sexual and aggressive motives
  26. The research study of a cognitive psychologist is most likely to involve which of the following topics?
    Problem solving
  27. How many people in the United States describe themselves as multiracial?
    7 million
  28. Wundt is to ________ as James is to ________.
    structuralism; functionalism
  29. The Gestalt school of psychology was founded by
  30. Your dog is demonstrating some unacceptable behavior. You are able to go back in time to talk to one of the pioneers of psychology. Who would be the best choice to help with your problem?
    B. F. Skinner
  31. Animal trainer Bob Jeffers uses rewards to teach his animals to perform silly tricks in the circus. Jeffers's techniques are based on principles from which school of psychology?
  32. For her first psychology paper in graduate school, Tina decided to write about the subject of psychophysics. Which of the following is most likely to be the name of her paper?
    Men's physical reactions to different concentrations of perfume
  33. A movement within modern psychology that applies principles from Darwin's theories is called;
    evolutionary psychology
  34. Dr. Spires talks with some students before psychology class begins. Spires says, "I believe that mental experience is best understood as a whole, rather than in terms of its parts." Her students recognize that Spires follows which school of thought?
  35. Who is generally recognized as the founder of American psychology?
  36. A functionalist is most likely to ask which of the following questions?
    What is the purpose of superstitions?
  37. Functionalism focused on
    how individuals adapt to their environment
  38. Traditional "racial" distinctions between people;
    do not stand up to genetic tests
  39. You have been assigned to write a report on Wilhelm Wundt's contributions to psychology. Which would be the most useful term for an Internet search?
  40. G. Stanley Hall is known for all of the following EXCEPT:
    He is considered the founder of American psychology
  41. Who is most closely associated with the positive psychology movement?
    Martin Seligman
  42. Dr. von Waldner conducts research on depression. His hypothesis is that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns. From which perspective is von Waldner working?
  43. What makes psychology a scientific discipline?
    Its focus on testing theories
  44. A strong belief that the environment molds the behavior of humans and other animals is characteristic of which school of psychology?
  45. Talk therapy" is associated with which of the following?
    Sigmund Freud
  46. A researcher adhering to the behavioral perspective would likely believe that aggression;
    is learned when it is rewarded by the environment
  47. Which theorists are associated with humanistic psychology?
    Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
  48. Positive psychology is distinctively different from much of the rest of psychology because of its emphasis on;
    understanding human strengths and assets
  49. Who was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States?
    Margaret Floy Washburn
  50. Dr. Mars is conducting research on the type of toothbrush that is most likely to appeal to young adults. Dr. Mars is most likely which of the following types of psychologists?
  51. Which psychology pioneer(s) conducted the study that showed that African American preschoolers preferred playing with a white doll to playing with a black doll?
    Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps-Clark
  52. Jean is an industrial/organizational psychologist. On her first day at Ace Manufacturing, she was LEAST surprised when management asked her to;
    recommend ways to improve employees' job satisfaction
  53. Women account for approximately what percentage of Ph.D. recipients in psychology?
    70 percent
  54. Who is the only African American to have served as president of the American Psychological Association?
    Kenneth Clark
  55. Dr. Samuelson conducts research on the relationship between stroke and speech problems. He is probably a
  56. Which subspecialty represents the largest group of psychologists?
  57. The American Psychological Association was founded in which year?
  58. Caroline Sherry is a counseling psychologist. Which of the following is she most likely to see as a client?
    Lynn, a college student, who is confused about choosing a college major
  59. What is the graduate degree most commonly earned by psychologists?
  60. Dr. Fiennes, a psychological researcher, studies the biological bases of memory problems in the elderly using animal research subjects. Fiennes is what type of psychologist?
  61. The difference between basic and applied research is that only basic research
    is almost always associated with universities or government agencies
  62. How does the gender shift in psychology compare with the gender shifts in law and medicine?
    The gender shift in psychology is happening at a faster rate than it is in medicine and law
  63. A developmental psychologist is most likely to study which of the following research questions?
    How do children's eating habits change as they progress from childhood through adolescence?
  64. Of the following, which psychologists would be most likely to be involved in a study that seeks to identify the common traits of people who develop a stress-related disorder?
    Personality psychologists
  65. Which type of psychologist would most likely study such phenomena as the effects of parenting style on a child's emotional growth?
  66. A consultant who advises defense attorneys regarding what their accused client should wear in court is likely to be what type of psychologist?
  67. The executives of an aircraft company want to redesign the interior of their jet planes to offer passengers the most comfort within the confined space. What type of psychologists would they need to consult?
  68. A health psychologist might study the;
    effectiveness of ads that use fear to get adolescents to stop smoking.
  69. A school psychologist would be most likely to;
    administer an intelligence test to a twelve-year-old child
  70. Of the following subspecialties in psychology, which is LEAST likely to focus on applied research?
  71. The first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology in the United States was ________, and the first African American to publish research findings in a major U.S. psychology journal was ________.
    Francis Sumner; J. Henry Alston
  72. Which type of psychologist would evaluate whether overcrowding in urban areas is associated with increased violent crimes?
  73. Which of the following relationships would most likely have the weakest correlation?
    A person's height and intelligence
  74. The use of psychotherapy to help people deal with depression is an example of which goal of psychology?
  75. In a study of the effects of sleep deprivation on aggressiveness, the number of hours that a participant stays awake represents the;
    independent variable
  76. Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were "statistically significant." What does this mean?
    The results are unlikely to have been due to chance or other random factors
  77. Psychologists frame their research questions in the form of;
  78. Every participant in an experiment has an equal chance of receiving one of the treatments. This is called;
    random assignment
  79. Dr. Schultze conducts research on the effects of a new drug on obsessive-compulsive disorder. In his study, neither Schultze nor the participants knows who is receiving the active drug and who is receiving the placebo. This is an example of;
    a double-blind study.
  80. Which of the following statements about psychology is true?
    Psychologists are trained to be skeptics
  81. Dr. Mingus keeps a very detailed record of a series of interviews with an individual who is suffering from a rare brain disorder. This is an example of which research method?
    Case study
  82. An experiment investigates whether watching television while eating causes a person to eat more potato chips than one eats when not watching television. In this case, the number of potato chips eaten represents the;
    dependent variable
  83. Which of the following is NOT a concern regarding animal research?
    Informed consent
  84. A method of developing knowledge based on the evaluation of evidence from experiments and careful observation is called the;
    empirical approach.
  85. After reading about a study that concluded that having a dog is beneficial for an elderly person's health, Dr. Wolpe was skeptical. Therefore, he decided to do a similar study to see whether he would achieve the same results. Dr. Wolpe's study would be termed a;
  86. Online articles in scientific journals are trustworthy sources of information because;
    they undergo peer review