INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide5 LEARNING MEMORY

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ffloyd
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INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide5 LEARNING MEMORY
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2011-10-02 19:51:48
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INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide5 LEARNING MEMORY
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INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide5 LEARNING MEMORY
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  1. What is the definition of:“learning”; “associative-” and
    “non-associative-” learning; “memory”; “declarative-” and “procedural-” memory.
    • learning-acquisition of info/skills via experience that changes behavior
    • associtative-making connections btw 2 or more stimuli
    • non-assoc:repitition of a stimulus
    • memory-the capacity to retain and recall past experiences
    • declarative-memories that can be put in words
    • procedural-memory of how to do something
  2. Describe Hebb’s Cell Assembly
    Hebb proposed that experiencing an event would activate a group of neurons
  3. what factors could hinder retrieval of memories?
    • interference-presence of too many other memories
    • absence of memory attributes
  4. Name the parts of the brain involved in the formation of short- and long-term declarative memory
    • ST declarative - hippocampus and temporal lobe
    • LT declarative - association cortex
  5. Name the parts of the brain involved in the formation of short- and long-term procedural memory
    • ST procedural - areas of basal ganglia (striatum)
    • LT procedural - cerebellum, basal nuclei, premotor cortex
  6. Define “retrograde” , “anterograde” and “transient global” amnesia
    • The inability to recall events that occurred prior to some disturbance in the brain - Retrograde amnesia
    • The inability to recall events that occur after some disturbance in the brain - Anterograde amnesia
    • temporary loss of memory - Transient Global Amnesia possibly due to brief cerebral ischemia
  7. Describe the effects of damage to the medial temporal lobe. Medial dorsal thalamus?
    • results in Anterograde Amnesia
    • cannot store declarative mems
    • can store procedural mems

    Damage to medial dorsal thalamus produces similar but milder memory defects
  8. Describe Korsakoff’s syndrome
    • thiamin deficiency in chronic alcoholism
    • profound anterograde amnesia
    • loss of declarative mem
    • lack of awareness of memory deficit
  9. Explain the role of the hippocampus in memory
    formation
    • involved in laying down of declarative mems, spacial memory, relational memory
    • not site of memory storage
  10. Define long-term potentiation
    experience can increase the functioning of specific hippocampal neurons and result in increased neural responsitivity such as amplitude and duration of EPSPs
  11. Describe the underlying neural mechanism of LTP
    • Glutamate levels relatively low when at rest - GLU binds to AMPA receptors that let Na in to depolarize - GLU binds to NMDA receptors that let in Ca, but is blocked by Mg
    • when experiencing, GLU levels rise, open more AMPA Na channels for longer, greater depolarization displaces Mg and allow Ca to move through NMDA channels
    • an autocrine from the activation of PK1 helps keep Na channels open and a paracrine from PK2 acts back on presynaptic cell to release more GLU
  12. List the stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Stage1 : anterograde amnesia, disoriented, careless
    • Stage2 : loses memory of all recent events
    • Stage3: loss of semantic and procedural memory as well
  13. Describe the cellular changes noted in Alzheimer’s disease
    • neurofibrillary tangles found within cell
    • extracellular senile plaques
    • amyliod beta protein thought to cause degeneration
    • degeneration of cholinergic neurons in forebrain

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