Phys Ch6

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Author:
bkheath
ID:
105838
Filename:
Phys Ch6
Updated:
2011-10-04 20:30:29
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Phys Endocrine
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Phys Ch 6 Endocrine
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  1. Endocrine organ which controls action of pituitary gland
    Hypothalamus
  2. Posterior pituitary is linked to
    nerves
  3. Anterior pituitary is linked to
    blood
  4. 2 neurohormones that posterior pituitary gland secretes due to the nerve cells in hypothalamus
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin)
    • Oxytocin
  5. Neurohormone which controls water balance
    ADH
  6. Neurohormone which controls uterine contractions & lactation
    Oxytocin
  7. Hormones which affect the release of another hormone
    (by traveling to tissue & signaling release/inhibition of another hormone)
    Tropic hormones
  8. 2 general types of tropic hormones
    • Releasing hormones
    • Inhibiting hormones
  9. Explain how the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system works
    • It's a blood connection
    • The portal vein links the hypothalamic capillary bed to the anterior pituitary capillary bed. So when neurosecretory cells secrete hormones into hypothal cap bed, they travel down portal vein and go to anterior pit cap bed; from here they go to blood
  10. ____ secretes tropic hormones that affect the ______'s secretion of hormones
    • Hypothalamus
    • anterior pituitary's
  11. Where are adrenal glands located and what are their layers?
    on top of kidneys; cortex and medulla
  12. Adrenocorticoids are secreted by the adrenal ___
    cortex
  13. Catecholamines are a chemical class of hormones which are secreted by the adrenal ____
    medulla
  14. 3 types of adrenocorticoids
    • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone): Na+, K+ levels
    • Sex hormones (adrogens): reproduction
    • Glucocorticoids (cortisol): stress response, metabolism
  15. Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
    Regulates sodium and postassium levels
  16. Sex hormones (androgens) of adrenal cortex
    Play a minor role (relatively speaking to gonads) in regulating reproductive function
  17. Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • Regulates body's response to stress
    • Regulates metabolism
  18. Secretory cells of adrenal medulla are called:
    Chromaffin cells
  19. Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla secrete: (3)
    and are regulated by:
    • 80% epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • 20% norepinephrine
    • 1% dopamine
    • Nervous system
  20. 3 hormones of thyroid
    • T4, T3 (containe iodine)
    • Calcitonin
  21. Thyroid hormones which regulate metabolism
    T4, T3
  22. Thyroid hormone which reduces calcium levels in blood
    Calcitonin
  23. Hormone of parathyroid which increases calcium levels in blood
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  24. Hormone of thymus
    thymosin
  25. Role of thymosin
    Regulates T-cell function
  26. Exocrine cells of pancreas & what they do
    Acinar & duct cells; secrete fluid & enzymes which enter dig tract via pancreatic duct (exocrine b/c secrete across barrier)
  27. Endocrine cells of pancreas (4) & what chem they secrete
    • Alpha cells: glucagon (controls bs levels)
    • Beta cells: insulin (controls bs levels)
    • Delta cells: somatostatin (regulates digestion)
    • F cells: pancreatic polypeptide (unk)
  28. Gonads
    Testes, ovaries
  29. Glandular tissue in brain which secretes melatonin
    Pineal gland
  30. What controls hormone levels in blood
    • Rate of hormone secretion
    • Amt of hormone bound to plasma proteins (if lots are bound up, may not be enough avail to trigger enough receptors to trigger response)
    • Rate of hormone metabolism
  31. Where are hormones metabolized?
    By enzymes in target tissue, blood, & liver
  32. Active form of lipophilic hormone is ____ ____
    free form
  33. Peptides & cateocholamines are hydro____ hormones which are dissolved in ____
    • philic
    • plasma
  34. Steroids & thyroid hormones are hydro____ which bind to ___ ___ which gives protects them & gives them longer_____
    • phobic
    • carrier proteins
    • half-life
  35. Type of hormone interaction in which the effects of hormones oppose each other & example
    • Antagonism
    • Glucagon (inc bs) vs insulin (dec bs)
  36. Type of hormone interaction in which the net effect equals the sum of the individual effects
    1+1=2
    Additive Effect
  37. Type of hormone interaction in which the effects of 2 hormones favor each other but the net effect exceeds the sum of individual effects
    1+1 = >2
    • Synergism
    • Ex: glucagon, cortisol, & epinephrine on blood glucose
  38. Type of hormone interaction in which one hormone is needed in order for another to exert its effects
    • Permissiveness
    • Ex: Estrogen causes expression of progesterone receptors in uterus (estrogen permits progesterone to function)

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