peds

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sanchez
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105840
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peds
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2011-10-05 15:12:11
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peds 60
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peds 60
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  1. most health problems in infants are caused by?
    respiratory, GI infections, and congenital anomolies
  2. a normal infants respiratory characteristics
    quiet and shallow with variations in RR

    primarily abdominal movement
  3. count infant resp for?
    rate for infant resp?
    1 full minute

    30-50 breaths per min
  4. amount of infant resps that indicate resp distress
    60 and greater
  5. inflammation of the middle ear that can occur unilaterally or bilaterally
    otitis media
  6. part of the ear that allows for drainage in the middle ear to the nasopharynx
    eustachian tubes
  7. an ______ often percedes the development of otitis media in infants
    upper resp tract infection
  8. s/s of otitis media
    infants pulling at infected ear

    vomiting

    diarrhea

    fever

    hearing loss
  9. characterisitics of otitis media
    eardrum will be red bulging and nonmobile
  10. prolonged ear infection can result in
    sensorineural and/or conductive hearing loss
  11. medical treatment for otiitis media
    eleminate infection and f/u with extent of hearing loss
  12. myringotomy
    surgical incision of the eardrum
  13. pharmacological treatment of otitis media
    antibiotics (amoxicillan, ceclor, suprax)

    antipyretics

    analgesics
  14. primary nursing concerns for otitis media
    relieve fever with tylenol

    pain with heat or ice compress

    lay on infected side to drain

    provide liquids and soft food
  15. prevention of otitis media
    ensure proper feeding position

    immunize breastfed infants w/ immunoglobulin A

    provide smoke free environment
  16. most common type of croup, a viral illness that causes swelling of the upper airway
    laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
  17. initial symptoms of LTB
    stridor (high pitched harsh sound)

    persistant low grade fever

    nasal drainage w/ increas resp. effort for several days
  18. med-surg managment of LTB
    maintain patent airway with humid coolmist environ

    hydrate with nonacidic non corbonated bevs
  19. pharm management of LTB
    bronchodilators

    corticosteroids

    sedatives
  20. inflammation of the bronchioles and alveolar spaces of the lungs
    pneumonia
  21. pneumonia is primarily caused by
    RSV (resp syncytial virus)
  22. pneumonia is often preceded by an _________ resp. tract infection
    upper
  23. most common form of bacterial pneumonia in infants
    pneumococcal pneumonia
  24. s/s of pneumonia
    abrupt onset of:

    rapid increasing fever

    flaring nostrils

    circumoral cyanosis

    chest retractions

    pulse rate 140-180

    resp rate 60 - 80

    nonproductive cough
  25. how is pneumonia Dx confirmed
    chest xray and secretion cultures
  26. med treatment of pneumonia
    oxygen

    coolmist

    chest physiotherapy

    postural drainage

    hydration

    antipyretics

    antibiotics (erythro, azithro, clarithro)
  27. nursing management of pneumonia
    assess lungs

    manage resp status

    monitor I & O

    skin turgor and anterior fontanel

    suction drainage

    change position frequently
  28. preterm infants usually have _____ because their lings are deficient in surfactant
    respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  29. substance that reduces surface tension inside the air sacs
    surfactant
  30. infants born at ______ weeks or less are at risk for RDS. the first ____ hours are critical for infant recovery from RDS
    28 weeks

    96 hours
  31. complications of RDS
    intraventricular hemorrhage

    bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    necrotizing enterocolitis

    complications of oxygen therapy
  32. med-surg management of RDS
    administer surfactant through endotracheal tube soon after birth

    continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) helps keep lunga paritally expanded for 5 days when infants produce surfactant
  33. health promo of RDS
    administer surfactant for at risk infants

    measure lecithin for expected preterm babies

    prevent occurance of RDS

    give glucocortecosteroid (betamethasone) if lecithin is not present
  34. nursing managemnt of RDS
    monitor resp

    elimnate unnecessary physical stimulants

    establish positive relationship

    place infant in warmer with oxygen hood or vent
  35. major dysfunction of all exocrine glands that affects lungs, pancreas, liver and reproductive organs
    cystic fibrosis
  36. characteristics of CF
    increase mucous secretions

    elevated sweat electrolytes

    increased saliva

    abnormal ANS function
  37. when do most children show signs of CF
    by 1 year
  38. what is the earliest manifesation of CF
    meconium ileus (impacted feces in newborn causing bowel obstruction)
  39. intussusception (telescoping of bowel) and rectal prolapse (passing sticky, thick , fatty stools) may be another sign of?
    CF
  40. FTT is common with?
    CF
  41. caregivers often report what about their infants, which is often a result of increased sweat electrolytes
    they taste like salt
  42. how to diagnose CF
    sweat chloride test with greater than 60 meq
  43. med surg management of CF
    treat pulmonary complications

    ensure adequete nutrition

    CPT 1-3 times a day ( chest physiotherapy postural drainage)
  44. nursing Dx for CF
    ineffective airway clearance
  45. commonly called crib death. is the sudden unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant whom the postmortem faisl to reveal an adequete cause
    SIDS
  46. the leading cause of death in infants older than 1 month of age, peaking between 2 and 30 months of age
    SIDS
  47. what does the american academy of pediatrics recommend for infant sleep
    that they lay on their backs
  48. these are typical characteristics of ________

    - frothy blood tinged sputum in the nose or mouth

    - full wet diaper

    - clenched hands

    - huddled in a corner, with blankets on the head
    SIDS
  49. nursing management for SIDS
    reasure family that SIDS death is not predictable or completely preventable

    provide support

    ask factual questions without suggesting responsibility
  50. _______ are best categorized according to blood flow patterns:

    - increased pulmonary blood flow patterns
    - decreased pulmonary blood flow
    -obstructed blood flow out of heart
    - mixed blood flow
    congenital cardiovascular defect
  51. 4 most common cardiovascular defects in infants
    ventricular septal defect

    atrial septal defect

    patent ductus arteriosus

    tetralogy of fallot
  52. a combination of genetic and environmental defects
    multifactorial inheritance
  53. _____ in the mother during 1st trimester is a common cause of heart defects in infants
    rubella
  54. drugs used for children with cardiovascular defects
    digoxin and lasix

    oxygen therapy and fluid management
  55. often referred to as jaundice and is a common occuance in neonates
    hyperbilirubinemia
  56. yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes, and body luids resulting from excess bilirubin and deposition of bile pigments
    jaundice
  57. a high level of bilirubon can penetrate and brain cells causing ______
    severe neural symptoms (kernicterus)
  58. main objective of jaundice treatment
    reduce amount of unconjugated bilirubin to a form that can be excreted from the body
  59. what can full term infants with jaundice benefit from
    breastfeeding every 2 hours
  60. how to treat jaundice
    bililight

    fiber optic blanket

    phototherapy light
  61. nursing management of jaundice
    encourage frequent feedings

    maintain phototherapy
  62. _____ is a rsult of infants comsuming large amounts of milk and foods that do not contain iron
    iron deficiency anemia
  63. how long do full term infants store iron from fetal circulation
    5-6 months
  64. when does iron defiecinecy usually surface
    9 and 24 months of age
  65. clinical manifestations of iron deficiency anemia
    extreme pallor

    tachycardia

    lethargy

    irritability

    low hemoglobon, hematocrit and iron levels
  66. genetic disorder characterized by the production of abnormal hemoglobin and resulting in RBC's taking a sickle shape
    sickle cell anemia
  67. what can episodes of sickling be triggered by
    • infection
    • dehydration
    • hypoxia
    • trauma
    • stress
  68. most common symptom of sickle cell anemia is
    abdominal pain bc of enlargment of spleen
  69. oral fungal infection that is transmitted from the vaginal canal of an infected mother to the newborn
    thrush
  70. treatment for thrush
    nystatin
  71. inflammation of the stomach and intestines that may be accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting caused by malnutrition, infection, and lactose intolerance
    acute gastroenteritis
  72. paramount med surg management of acute gastroenteritis
    ragain and maintain fluid balance
  73. sudden periodic attack of abdominal pain and cramping defined as crying for more than 3 hours per day, more than 3 days per week , and for longer than 3 weeks in an infant who is well fed and healthy
    colic
  74. speculation cause of colic
    overfeeding

    rapid feeding

    improper burping

    swallowing air

    emotional stress
  75. label applied to infants who fail to gain weight and who show signs of delayed development
    failure to thrive
  76. medsurg managemnt for FTT
    provide adequte nutrition

    promote gorwth and development

    nurture infant
  77. most common facial malformation
    cleft lip and cleft palate
  78. common disorder that occurs when the circular muscle surrounding the pylorus hypertrophies and blocks gastric emptying
    pyloric stenosis
  79. congenital anomoly manifested as a partial or complete mechanical obstruction resulting from inadequete motility of part of the colon
    hirshprungs disease/megacolon
  80. disorder characterized by the telescoping of one pprtion of the bowel intal the diatal portion
    intussusception

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