bio ch 7

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Siobhan
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105849
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bio ch 7
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2011-10-02 20:00:17
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bio ch 7
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  1. light independant reactions
    convert sunlight energy to energy carrier molecules
  2. light independent reactions
    convert energy in carrier molecules into glucose
  3. photons
    captured by chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules that allow chloroplasts to absorb light at different wavelengths
  4. thylakoid membrane
    where light dependent reactions occur in the chloroplasts in special photosystems
  5. calvin cycle
    captures CO2 and stores it in glucose molecules.
  6. leaves adapted to photosynthesis
    • thin
    • large surface area
    • waxy cuticle
    • transparent epidermis
  7. chloroplasts
    • site of photosynthesis. usually located in leaves.
    • Membrane bound organells with an inner and outer membrane
    • Photosynthesis takes place in thykaloid
    • Grana stacks of thykaloid
    • calvin cycle takes place in stroma
  8. leave anatomy
    • chloroplasts located in mesophyll
    • stroma control gas exchange
  9. photosynthesis overview
    • 6 CO2 + 6
    • H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2



    • •Inorganic
    • molecules are converted into organic molecules

    • •Light
    • energy is trapped in the bonds of organic molecules (glucose)

    • •Oxygen
    • is produced

    • •Can
    • be broken down into 2 stages

    • –Light
    • reactions and Calvin cycle
  10. photosynthesis- light reactions
    • •Energy
    • from sunlight is trapped in NADPH and ATP

    •H2O molecules are split

    •O2 is produced

    • •Energy
    • from these rxns
    • drives the Calvin cycle
  11. photosynthesis- calvin cycle
    • •Takes
    • place in the stroma

    • •Enzymes
    • convert CO2 to 3 carbon sugar using energy from
    • NADPH and ATP

  12. Light energy
    • •Electromagnetic
    • spectrum includes energy that is visible and invisible

    • •Wavelength
    • energy consists of photons

    • •Shorter
    • the wavelength, the higher the energy
  13. light energy and pigments
    • •Visible
    • light excites electrons in plant pigments

    • –Chl-a, Chl-b,
    • Carotenoids

    • •Pigments
    • utilize specific wavelengths
  14. photosynthetic efficiency
    • •Amt of
    • sunlight energy that is converted into biological molecules

    • •Most
    • light is reflected or passes through (transmitted) the leaf
  15. light reactions- photosystems
    • •Within
    • the thylakoid membrane are many photosystems

    • •Each
    • photosystem is a protein complex surrounded by chl

    • •Chl e-
    • are excited by light

    • •Excited
    • e- are captured by primary e- acceptor

    • •Photosystems
    • are followed by ETC
  16. photosystems II
    • •e-
    • are continually supplied by splitting H20

    • •Split
    • H2O also supplies H+, which increases concentration gradient
    • in thylakoid space

    • •Excited
    • e- enter ETC II, which generates ATP via chemiosomosis (H+ gradient and ATP synthase)
  17. Photosystem I
    • •e-
    • from PSII supply PSI

    • •Chl in
    • PSI produces e-

    • •Excited
    • e- enter ETC I

    • •NADP+
    • accepts 2 e- to become NADPH

    • •NADPH
    • supplies energy to Calvin cycle
  18. products of Light reactions- summary
    •PSII

    –H+, e-, ATP, O2

    •PSI

    –NADPH



    • •See
    • “Summing Up” box on p. 120
  19. calvin cycle
    • •Energy
    • in the form of ATP and NADPH supplied by the light reactions

    • •G3P
    • is synthesized from CO2

    • •Steps
    • of Calvin cycle:

    1.Carbon fixation

    2.Synthesis of G3P

    3.Regeneration of RuBP
  20. 1. carbon fixation
    • •Carbon
    • “fixation” describes the incorporation of inorganic carbon into organic
    • molecules

    • –Only
    • in plants, bacteria, archaea

    • •In
    • photosynthesis, 3 CO2 combine with 3 RuBP with
    • help of rubisco
    • enzyme

    • •PGA
    • is formed
  21. 2. synthesis of g3p
    • •Series
    • of enzyme catalyzed steps

    • •Uses
    • ATP and NADPH

    • •Converts
    • 6 PGA molecules to 6 mols of
    • G3P
  22. 3. regeneration of RuBP
    • •Enzyme
    • catalyzed

    • •Uses
    • ATP

    • •5
    • G3P molecules are used to regenerate RuBP

    • •Remaining
    • 1 G3P exits the cycle
  23. synthesis of glucose
    •1 molecule of G3P leaves cycle

    • •Combines
    • with G3P from prior Calvin cycle

    • •Forms
    • 1 glucose

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