353 Oral Diabetes Drugs

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353 Oral Diabetes Drugs
2011-10-02 19:47:24
353 Oral Diabetes Drugs

353 Oral Diabetes Drugs
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  1. What are sulfonylureas?
    • -Increases insulin production from pancreas
    • -decreases chance of prolonged hypoglycemia
    • -10% experience decreased effectiveness after prolonged use
    • -Glipizide (Glucotrol), Glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase PresTab)
    • SE: weight gain, hypoglycemia
  2. What are Meglitinides?
    • -Increase insulin production from pancreas
    • -Taken 30 minutes before each meal up to tiem of meal
    • -Do not take if meal is skipped
    • -Repaglinide (prandin), Nateglinide (Starlix)
    • -SE: weight gain, hypoglycemia
  3. What are Biguanides?
    • -Reduce glucose production by liver
    • -Enhance insulin sensitivity at tissues
    • -Improve glucose transport into cells
    • -Does not promote weight gain
    • -Metformin (Glucophage)
    • -SE: diarrhea, lactic acidosis, need to hold 1-2 before IV contrast media is given and 48 hr after
  4. What are a-glucosidase inhibitors?
    • -Starch blockers, slow down absorption of carbs into small intestine
    • -Acarbose (precose), miglitol (glyset)
    • -SE: Gas, ab pain, diarrhea
  5. What are Thiazolidinesdoines?
    • -Most effective in those with insulin resistance
    • -Improve insulin sensitivity, transport, and utilization at target tissues
    • -Pioglitazone (actos), Rosiglitazone (Avandia-off market)
    • -SE: weight gain, edema, increased risk for cardio problems
  6. What are Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitor?
    • -Slows the inactivation of incretin hormones
    • -Potential for hypoglycemia
    • -Sitagliptin (Januvia), Saxagliptin (Onglyza)
    • -Absence of weight gain as a SE
    • -SE: Upper respiratory tract infection, sore throat, HA, UTI, diarrhea
  7. What is Amylin analog?
    • -Hormone secreted by B cells of pancreas
    • -Co-secreted with insulin
    • -indicated for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
    • -Administered Sub-q into thigh or ab, not arm
    • -Slows gastic emptying, reduces postprandial glucagon secretion, increases satiety
    • -Do not mix with insulin, but can be taken during same period of time to decrease hypoglycemia
    • - Pramlintide (Symlin)
  8. What are B-adrenergic Blockers?
    • -Mask symptoms of hypoglycemia
    • -Prolong hypoglycemic effects of insulin
    • -Lower blood glucose
  9. What are Thiazide/Loop diuretics?
    -Can potentiate hyperglycemia by inducing potassium loss