Larynx

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
105859
Filename:
Larynx
Updated:
2011-10-02 20:16:55
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Larynx
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Description:
Med School - Larynx
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  1. What is the location of the larynx in relation to the vertebrae?
    Between 4th and 6th cervical vertebrae
  2. What are the 5 major cartilages found in the larynx?
    • Cricoid
    • Thyroid
    • Epiglottis
    • Paired arytenoid
  3. How is the larynx attached to the hyoid bone?
    Thyrohyoid ligament
  4. What is the location of the cricoid cartilage in relation to the vertebrae?
    C6
  5. What are the 4 synovial joints found on the cricoid?
    • Cricoarytenoid joints (2)
    • Cricothyroid joints (2)
  6. The posterior border of the thryoid cartilage cranially and caudally as what?
    • Cranially: Superior cornu
    • Caudally: Inferior cornu
  7. What do the aryepiglottic folds enclose?
    Lateral margins of the epiglottis
  8. What connects the epiglottis to the thyroid?
    Thyroepiglottic ligament
  9. What 2 processes are found on the arytenoid cartilage and what do they connect?
    • Muscular process: Attaches to laryngeal muscles
    • Vocal process: Attaches to the vocal ligaments
  10. What is found at the apex of the arytenoid cartilages?
    Paired corniculates
  11. What cartilage is found in the aryepiglottic folds?
    Cuneiform cartilage
  12. What cartilages are embedded in the thyrohyoid membrane?
    Tritiform cartilages
  13. What is the space between the aditus to the vestibular folds called?
    Vestibule
  14. What is the ventricle bound by?
    • Superiorly: Vestibular folds
    • Inferiorly: True vocal folds
  15. What is the space between the vestibular folds called?
    Rima vestibuli
  16. What is the space between the true vocal cords called?
    Rima glottidis
  17. What is the portion of the laryngeal cavity inferior to the rima glottis called?
    Infraglottic portion
  18. What 3 muscles are sphincters that help prevent food/water from entering the larynx?
    • Oblique arytenoid
    • Aryepiglottis
    • Thyroepiglottis
  19. What does the aryepiglottis form from and what does it make?
    • It forms from the oblique arytenoid muscle
    • Makes the aryepiglottic fold
  20. What is interesting about the thyroepiglottis?
    • Poorly developed
    • May help depress epiglottis during swollowing
  21. Where is the oblique arytenoid located?
    On the transverse arytenoid muscle
  22. What 3 muscles control the opening and closing of the airway at the rima glottidis?
    • Posterior cricoarytenoid
    • Lateral cricoarytenoid
    • Transverse arytenoid
  23. What is the function of the posterior cricoarytenoid?
    • Abducting vocal cords
    • Opening airway during respiration
  24. What is the function of the lateral cricoarytenoid?
    • Adducts vocal folds
    • Closes rima glottidis
  25. What is the function of the transverse arytenoid?
    Adduction of vocal folds
  26. What 3 muscles regulate the tension of the vocal folds?
    • Cricothyroid
    • Thyroarytenoid
    • Vocalis
  27. How does the cricothyroid increase tension of the vocal ligaments?
    Tilts thyroid cartilage anteriorly at the cricothyroid joint
  28. What is the action of the thyroarytenoid?
    • Pull arytenoids anteriorly
    • Shortening/decrease of tension of vocal ligaments
  29. What is the function of the vocalis?
    Minor adjustment of vocal cords in speaking/singing
  30. What is the lymphatic drainage superior to the true vocal folds?
    • Superior deep cervical nodes
    • Located near the corotid bifurcation
  31. What is the lymphatic drainage inferior to the true vocal cords?
    • Inferior deep cervical nodes
    • Located inferior to omohyoid muscles and on trachial rings
  32. What innervates laryngeal mucosa superior to the true vocal cords?
    Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve of X
  33. What innervates laryngeal mucosa inferior to the true vocal cords?
    Inferior laryngeal nerve (recurrent laryngeal nerve) of X
  34. What innervates the cricothyroid?
    External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of X
  35. What innervates the laryngeal muscles?
    Recurrent laryngeal nerve of X
  36. What can indirect laryngoscopy help view?
    • Nasopharynx
    • Root of tongue
    • Epiglottis
    • Valleculae
    • Piriform fossa
    • Vestibular/vocal cords
    • Superior trachea
  37. How is an emergent swelling of epiglottis or the vestibular folds treated?
    Tracheostomy
  38. What can infection/air passing through the retropharyngeal space cause?
    • Mediastinitis
    • Pneumomediastinum
  39. What will injury to the superior laryngeal nerve do?
    • Cough reflex will be gone
    • Vocal cord on effected side cannot tense
    • Hoarse voice
  40. If vocal cords are paralyzed, what happens?
    • If 1 paralyzed = impossible to cough normally
    • If 2 paralyzed/larynx removed = immpossible to cough
  41. What normally happens in the piriform recess?
    Things get stuck!
  42. Establishing an airway in an emergency is done how?
    Through the median cricothyroid ligament

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