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What is the location of the larynx in relation to the vertebrae?
Between 4th and 6th cervical vertebrae
What are the 5 major cartilages found in the larynx?
- Paired arytenoid
How is the larynx attached to the hyoid bone?
What is the location of the cricoid cartilage in relation to the vertebrae?
What are the 4 synovial joints found on the cricoid?
- Cricoarytenoid joints (2)
- Cricothyroid joints (2)
The posterior border of the thryoid cartilage cranially and caudally as what?
- Cranially: Superior cornu
- Caudally: Inferior cornu
What do the aryepiglottic folds enclose?
Lateral margins of the epiglottis
What connects the epiglottis to the thyroid?
What 2 processes are found on the arytenoid cartilage and what do they connect?
- Muscular process: Attaches to laryngeal muscles
- Vocal process: Attaches to the vocal ligaments
What is found at the apex of the arytenoid cartilages?
What cartilage is found in the aryepiglottic folds?
What cartilages are embedded in the thyrohyoid membrane?
What is the space between the aditus to the vestibular folds called?
What is the ventricle bound by?
- Superiorly: Vestibular folds
- Inferiorly: True vocal folds
What is the space between the vestibular folds called?
What is the space between the true vocal cords called?
What is the portion of the laryngeal cavity inferior to the rima glottis called?
What 3 muscles are sphincters that help prevent food/water from entering the larynx?
- Oblique arytenoid
What does the aryepiglottis form from and what does it make?
- It forms from the oblique arytenoid muscle
- Makes the aryepiglottic fold
What is interesting about the thyroepiglottis?
- Poorly developed
- May help depress epiglottis during swollowing
Where is the oblique arytenoid located?
On the transverse arytenoid muscle
What 3 muscles control the opening and closing of the airway at the rima glottidis?
- Posterior cricoarytenoid
- Lateral cricoarytenoid
- Transverse arytenoid
What is the function of the posterior cricoarytenoid?
- Abducting vocal cords
- Opening airway during respiration
What is the function of the lateral cricoarytenoid?
- Adducts vocal folds
- Closes rima glottidis
What is the function of the transverse arytenoid?
Adduction of vocal folds
What 3 muscles regulate the tension of the vocal folds?
How does the cricothyroid increase tension of the vocal ligaments?
Tilts thyroid cartilage anteriorly at the cricothyroid joint
What is the action of the thyroarytenoid?
- Pull arytenoids anteriorly
- Shortening/decrease of tension of vocal ligaments
What is the function of the vocalis?
Minor adjustment of vocal cords in speaking/singing
What is the lymphatic drainage superior to the true vocal folds?
- Superior deep cervical nodes
- Located near the corotid bifurcation
What is the lymphatic drainage inferior to the true vocal cords?
- Inferior deep cervical nodes
- Located inferior to omohyoid muscles and on trachial rings
What innervates laryngeal mucosa superior to the true vocal cords?
Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve of X
What innervates laryngeal mucosa inferior to the true vocal cords?
Inferior laryngeal nerve (recurrent laryngeal nerve) of X
What innervates the cricothyroid?
External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of X
What innervates the laryngeal muscles?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve of X
What can indirect laryngoscopy help view?
- Root of tongue
- Piriform fossa
- Vestibular/vocal cords
- Superior trachea
How is an emergent swelling of epiglottis or the vestibular folds treated?
What can infection/air passing through the retropharyngeal space cause?
What will injury to the superior laryngeal nerve do?
- Cough reflex will be gone
- Vocal cord on effected side cannot tense
- Hoarse voice
If vocal cords are paralyzed, what happens?
- If 1 paralyzed = impossible to cough normally
- If 2 paralyzed/larynx removed = immpossible to cough
What normally happens in the piriform recess?
Things get stuck!
Establishing an airway in an emergency is done how?
Through the median cricothyroid ligament
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