What sort of environment is in the Northwest, where the Chinook and the Tlingit lived?
Pacific ocean, forests, plateaus, basins, and rivers. Wet climate with mild winters and cool summers.
How did the Chinook and Tlingit survive without farming?
Berries and roots, game like deer and beaver from forests, fish and shellfish, seagull eggs. Salmon was most important.
What is a salmon run?
Most important event in lives of Northwest Coast Native Americans. From early spring to late summer, salmon swim from the Pacific Ocean into the freshwater rivers to spawn (lay eggs).
Where would you find Tinglit today?
What did the Tinglit do?
They built large houses and carved totem poles to honor their family members, ancestors, and chiefs.
What is a potlatch?
A special feast the Tinglit's had to honor new chiefs or celebrate weddings. The guests received the gifts. Hosts tried to give away more than the last host!
Who is Vitus Bering?
Sailed from Russia in the mid-1700s and began trading relationship with the Tinglits. (Bering Straights are named for him.)
How did Alaska become a state?
The US government bought it from Russia in 1867. Once the US owned this territory, it began moving the Tinglit far from the coastal waters they depended on.
What sorts of arts are the Navajo known for?
Blankets, baskets, pottery, clothing and religious art.
What Native Americans are found in the Southwest?
Navajo, Hopi, and Zuni.
What are Pueblos?
Apartment like dwellings. Old Oraibi is one of the most famous.
What is the environment the Hopi live in like?
Mountains, canyons, and steep mesas.
How did the Southwest Native Americans get food?
"Dry farming" (because it was so hot and dry in their area). They farmed and made dams and irrigation to water the plants. They are most famous for corn.
What are Hopi homes made from?
Adobe, a clay. The walls were thick and protected from heat of summer and cold of winter.
What are Kachinas?
Spirits who bring rain, show people how to live, and bring peace and prosperity. The Hopi have ceremonies for the six months the kachinas visit. They have dances. The Crow Mother is the mother of all Kachinas.
What art form is important to the Hopi?
Pottery with painted designs.
How did Nampeyo become interested in traditional Hopi pottery forms?
Her husband worked with an archeologist, and they found many old items. She visited the digs and began copying the traditonal styles. They she developed her own designs based on the traditional styles.
Who are the Native Americans of the Plains?
How did the Lakota Sioux live?
They farmed and hunted buffalo.
What did Lakota Sioux live in?
Lodges made of logs covered with grasses, sticks, and soil.
What was the environment of the Great Plains like?
Flat or gently rolling land covered in grasses and wildflowers. It's very hot in the summer and very cold in the winter. Little rain can make growing crops hard.
What did the Lakota Sioux live in?
Teepees, cone-shaped tents covered in animal skins.
What did the Lakota Sioux use travois for?
To carry their belongings and buffalo meat. (A travois is a kind of sled made of sticks, pulled by dogs or a horse.) Like in Kaya.
What animal brought big changes for the Lakota Sioux?
Horses brought by the Europeans in the 1600s. The Lakota Sioux became expert riders and trainers. They started using horses to hunt buffalo, which began to replace farming. Villages disappeared and the LS moved around following the buffalo herds.
How did the Lakota people use the different parts of the buffalo?
Meat for food, skins for clothing and teepees.
What happened when the Europeans began to move onto the Great Plains?
They took land for farming, pushing the buffalo off important grazing lands.
Who were the Eastern Woodland Native Americans?
Cherokee, Creek (aka Muscogee), Penobscot, Lenape, Potawatomi, and Winnebago.
What is the area of the Eastern Woodland peoples like?
Extends from the Atlantic to West of the Mississippi River. Forests, rivers, lakes.
What did the Eastern Woodland Native Americans do for food?
Fish from the rivers, wild rice from Great Lakes area. Some areas were very good for farming. Wood supplied material for homes and canoes.
Who are the Penobscot?
These people lived in what is now Maine in mountainous areas that made farming difficult. They hunted game and moved with the food. They also gathered fruits, nuts, and berries from the forests.
Who were the Natchez?
From what is now the state of Mississippi where winters are mild and farming is relatively easy.