Nutrition

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mel
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105902
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Nutrition
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2011-10-04 09:47:16
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Nutrition
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Nutrition #2
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  1. The small intestine has lots of surface area. This allows the lumen to do....
    • 1. Secret
    • 2. Absorbs
  2. Absorption starts in earnest in the _____
    Duodenum
  3. Some things are absorbed into the cells lining the GI by simple ______________
    (moving across a wall)
    diffusion and/or osmosis
  4. Some things get taken into up by facillitated diffusion (means there are specific protein carriers)
    Float into body
  5. Some are taken up by active transport which ______
    requires energy
  6. Liver gets 1st call on all the blood and the heart gets the leftovers
    Bloos leaving the liver then behaves itself and heas directly to the heart and does not pass "go"
  7. Blood leaves the gut and goes directly to the ____
    liver
  8. ____ is a good place for glycogen
    Liver
  9. Mechanism for dealing with food-rich blood
    Hepatic Protal System
  10. _____is produced by the liver and stored in the ______

    It is good for digestion
    • Bile
    • Gall Bladder
  11. Hepatic Portal Vein ________ liver
    Common Bile Duct _________liver
    • Lets into the
    • Takes out of the
  12. ______ contains white blood cells and is where the fat gets absorbed
    Lymph
  13. Water get absorbed and reabsorbed in the ________
    small intestine
  14. Fats get taken to the _____system in the gut
    Lymph
  15. All chemical reaction that happen in the body and have energy required for them is called _____
    Metabolism
  16. Carbohydrate (glucose) concentrations in blood are very closely regulated, as carbs (again glucose really) are key/immediate/sometimes almost exclusive source of energy, especially for the brain.
    (Carbs) Energy for metabolism quick source of energy
  17. ______ liberate sugar from glycogen so it can be broken down
    Glycagen
  18. ______ is the horomone responsible for packing away energy
    Insulin
  19. Insulin takes blood into the cell
    Glycogen takes blood out of the cell
  20. ______ is the key player in the process which can be liberated when blood concentrations fall
    Glucagon
  21. ______ puts the sugar into the liver and muscle in the first place
    Insulin
  22. The four forms of human energy
    • 1. Chemical
    • 2. Electrical
    • 3. Mechanical
    • 4. Thermal
  23. The ultimate source of energy here on earth is _____
    sunlight
  24. In photosynthesis, plants use solar energy to convert water and carbon dioxide to chemical energy also known as ______
    Sugar
  25. In our bodies food needed for energy is converted to _______
    Glucose
  26. _______ and _____ are biproducts of energy metabolism in our bodies.
    They are also used as the material by plants
    • Water
    • Carbon Dioxide
  27. Metabolism
    • Energy that has been transformed in one way or another in order to facilitate the bodies needs
    • Moving energy from one band to another band
  28. Chemical bonds
    The bonds that hold molecules together
  29. ______ bonds are strong bonds
    Covalent
  30. Energy
    We can put it to work
  31. We lose 90% of energy in bond transitions
    This becomes heat that we give off daily to keep us warm
  32. No mater what, source of energy will always give off ____
    • heat
    • Heat will always be given off
  33. Enzymes
    • Speed up reactions
    • Are present in all proteins
  34. Energy release rates must be controlled else
    we will burn up
  35. Energy reactions in cells are regulated by
    • Energy
    • Hormones
    • Temperature
  36. There are two types of metabolic reactions
    • 1. anabolic
    • 2. catabolic
  37. Anabolic
    • Builds things
    • Where the majority of food energy is spent
    • Synthesizes new and more complex substances
  38. Catabolic
    • Tears things down
    • Breaks down more complex substances to simpler ones
    • Breaks down foods then hands it to the anabolic
  39. Glycogen-----(Glucagon-breaks down)-----Glucose
    • Reserves
    • 1. Glycogen
    • 2. Adipose
    • 3. Muscle
  40. Calorie
    The amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water 1 degree Celcius
  41. Calorimeter
    Calorie counter
  42. Measurment of food energy
    • Kilocalorie
    • Calorimetry
    • Approximate Compostion
  43. Three reasons we need energy
    • Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    • Thermic effect of food (TEF)
    • Physical activity
  44. BMR
    • Basal metabolic rate
    • the energy needed just to keep us going without the extra conditioning
    • The measure of energy required to maintain the body at rest
  45. TEF
    • Thermic effect of food
    • Energy used in the food process
    • The investment of energy that we put in food so we can change it into building sources
  46. About 10% of energy in food is used to simply "use" the food
  47. Takes more energy to break amino acids (proteins) than carbs -burn more calroies
    may explain why high protein diets help people loss weight
  48. BMR expenditure
    60-70% of total energy
  49. TEF expenditure
    10% of total energy
  50. Four body compartment
    • lean body mass
    • body fat
    • body water
    • mineral mass
  51. Women require 12% body fat
    Men require 3% body fat
  52. Women require a body fat of about ____ for otimal reproductive potential
    20%
  53. BMI
    Body mass index
  54. Muscle is about ______ the density of fat
    • 1.2 x
    • Muscle is more dense than fat
  55. Desirable BMI in adults is
    18.5 to 24.9
  56. Problems associated with weight and obesity
    • 1. metabolic problems
    • -Type 2 diabetes and hypertension
    • -elevated blood lipids
    • 2. Degenerative problems
    • 3. Neoplastic (Cancer) problems
    • 4. Anatomic Problems
    • -Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    • -Sleep apnea (stop breathing)
  57. Anorexia nervosa
    • self-induced starvation
    • Refusaul to eat
  58. Bulimia Nervosa: gorging-purging
    Eating food then purging it again
  59. Goal of underwight person renutrtion
    • 1. Feed diet high in kcalories at least 50% above standards
    • 2. Feed diet high in protein to rebuild tissues
    • 3. high in carbs to get energy source back
    • 4. moderate fat, dont exceed recommended limits
    • 5. optimum in vitamins and minerals
  60. Vitamins
    Organic dietary substance what have no significant energy value
  61. ADEK
    absobed in fat (fat soluable)
  62. Vitamins B complex and C
    • water soluable
    • easily transported
  63. Vitamin A is a generic name for _____
    • retinoids-play a role in vision
    • Plants cant make retinoids, instead they make beta-carotene and body (By metabolism) makes it into vitamin A
  64. Provitamin A
    beta-carotene
  65. _____ is made fromo cholesterol and is good at absorbing fat-soluable vitamins
    Bile
  66. ______ is the place where we store the most vitamins
    Liver
  67. Bile salts bring Vitamin A in
    Dietary fat must be present too
    Liver contains 85% of vitamin A
  68. Functions of Vitamin A
    • 1. helps vision
    • 2. helps to make epithelial tissues (skin)
    • ---absence leads to keratinization
  69. VA sources
    • Animals sources
    • and fortified foods
  70. Vitamin D
    • is Sterol
    • is the final product of Cholcalciferol (vitamin D3)
    • absorbed in the small interstine along with fat
  71. Functions of VD
    • Cell growth
    • Maintaince of bones
  72. Lack of VD leads to _____
    rickets
  73. Vitamin E is also called ______
    • tocopherol
    • Its a group of compounds with similar phy activity
    • Acts as an antioxidant in destroying free radicals
  74. Antioxidant
    sucks up the free radicals and they neutralize them
  75. Anemia
    not enough red blood cells in body ergo not enough oxygen carried aroud the body
  76. Disrupts the making of mylin aroud the nerves
    Anemia
  77. Sources of VE
    found in vegetables oils
  78. VE is the only fat-solable vitamin with no known toxicity at very high doses
  79. Vitamin K
    • "k" comes from cwagulation
    • Good for blood clotting
    • Good for bone metaolbism and health and maintainence
    • little is stored in the liver, we are rapidly getting rid of it in excretion
  80. Vitamin C
    • ASCORBIC ACID--ASCORBATE
    • Easily absorbed in small lintestine but requires citric acid
    • prevents oxidation and soaks up free redicals
  81. VC functions
    • name come from "c" collagen
    • holds our tissues together
    • participates in formation of hemoglobin and the development of red blood cells
  82. Vitamin B
    act as coenzymes with the cells enzymes
  83. Folic acid
    helps form spinal cord and folding over of tissues
  84. Thiamin
    • needed to affectively absorb carbs
    • Thiamin Carbs and Metabolism
    • Carbs increase the need for thiamin
  85. Dificiency of T
    beriberi-become deformed and have funny bone/muscle strutures especially in children
  86. Riboflavin
    • Absobded in upper section of SM IN
    • small amounts stored in the liver and kidney
    • active in both energy utilization and tissue building
  87. Niacin comes in two forms
    • 1. Nicotinic acid (NAD)
    • 2. Nicotinamide (NADP)
  88. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
    • Coenzyme in more than 100 amino acids involving the synethsis of important protiens such as neurotransmitters
    • Conenzyme in carbs and fat metabolism
  89. Pntothenic Acid
    Absorbed in IN and combines with Phosphorus to make the active molecule CoA
  90. Biotin
    • Sulfur-containing vitamin
    • Partners with acetyl CoA in reactions that tranfer CO2 from one compound to another
  91. Folate
    • Coenzyme with the task of attaching single carbons to metabolic compounds
    • Key molecules formed
    • --Purines
    • --Thymine
    • --Hemoglobin
  92. Folate requirements
    • Closure of neural tube in early weeks of fetal development
    • Mom has to be in good Folate status before becoming pregnant otherwise birth defects
  93. Food sources of Folate
    Under federal law all grain products including flour bread cerel must by fortified with folic acid
  94. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
    • Complex red molecule with atom at core
    • occurs as a protein complex in food of animal origin only
  95. Absoroption of VB12
    • stomach acid needed
    • bound to glycoprotein called intrinsic factor secreted by mucosal cells lining the stomach
    • intestinal absorption occurs in the ileum
  96. Functions of VB12
    • participates in amino acid metabolism and formation of the hume portion of hempglobin
    • involved in isynthesis of important lipids and proteins that form the mylin sheath
  97. Deficiency in VB12
    Pernicious Anema--intrinsic factor which must bind to vitamin B12 for it to be absorbed
  98. Vitamins are needed to stay alive
    Complex organic molecules that serve primarily as coenzymes or regulators of body metabolim
  99. Minerals
    • Not made by living things
    • Play important roles in Structure and Function
  100. Calcium and Phosphorus give strength to bones and body frame
    Iron provides core for heme in hemoglobin
  101. Major Mineral
    • Calcium
    • Phosohrus
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Sulfur
    • Chloride
  102. Sodium is in our _____ in high concentration
    Potassium is in our ______ in high concentration
    • Blood
    • Cells
  103. Calcium
    • Serves as a signal inside all cells 2nd messenger
    • More calcium in blood than any other mineral
    • Absorption of Calcium happens in the duodenum
  104. Approixmately 1% of body Calcium is in the blood the rest is in the bone
  105. Three agents control calcium balance
    • 1. Parathyroid hormone PTH
    • 2. Vitamin D hormone Calcitriol
    • 3. Calcitonin
  106. Phosphorus
    • 80-90% of P is found in bones and teeth with Calcium
    • Its present in every living cell but we can run out of P
  107. Sodium
    • Major cation in the extracellular fluids
    • MOST IMPORTANT ENZYME ON THE PLANET
    • Used by Na/K-ATPase to establish and maintain hte elctrochemical gradient across cell membranes
  108. _____ is pumped out of cells by Na/K-ATPase
    • Sodium
    • ----majority of energy we use goes toward this process
  109. Sodium is pumped out
    Potassium is pumped in
  110. Potassium
    • 2x as much in body as Sodium
    • Na/K-ATPase to establish and maintain the electrochemical concentrtaion gradient in cells
  111. Magnesium
    • Found in all cells of body
    • combine with C and P in bones
    • Activates enzymes for energy production and tissue building
  112. Magnesium is present in all things that live in the soil
  113. Chloride
    • in Blood=high concentration
    • in cells= low concentration
    • Found in extracellular fluid-where it helps control balance
  114. Sodium=_____
    Chloride=_____
    • Sodium= cation
    • Chloride= antion
  115. Trace elements
    • 1. catalyze chemical reactions
    • 2. serve as structural components of larger molecules
  116. Iron balance is controlled at the site of absorption inthe SM IN becaues there is no system for regualtion of iron excretion once it has entered the body
  117. Iodine
    • Found in seawater
    • It is used to make T3 and T4 and not much else
    • Thyroid gland!!
  118. Thyroid hormones play a key role in regualting BMR
    Goiters show up when there is a defincency in Iodine
  119. Zinc
    • Found in all cells but in very small amounts
    • Participates in many metabolic activites as a compnent of over 100 different enzymes and a factor in growth
  120. Fluoride
    • Is injected into water
    • Helps prevent cavities
    • Accumulates in the calcified tissues and protects bones and teeth from mineral loss

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