Notes on the State of Virginia
Published in 1785, by Thomas Jefferson. In it he claimed that blacks lacked, partly due to natural incapacity and partly because the bitter experience of slavery had (quite understandably, he felt) rendered them disloyal to the nation. He voiced the idea of blacks being inferior to whites in the endowments of body and mind as a suspicion only. He went on to state that this was a powerful obstacle to the emancipation of black people.