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How are infectious diseases spread?
- respiratory droplets
- airborne particles
- environmental sources
What are the different precautions for control of infections?
- personal protective equipment
- disinfecting environment
- identify new cases of disease
- isolating client's
What are PPE?
- Gear designed to protect you from exposure to microorganisms.
- googles/face shield
Who is required for standard precautions?
When do you use transmission-based precautions?
With standard precautions and when precautions dont completely block the chain of infection and the infection is airborne/droplet/contact.
When a client is under standard precautions what PPE is required?
- Hand hygiene
When a client is under contact precautions what PPE is required?
When is contact precautions used?
With diseases spread from hand to hand or inanimate objects to hand.
When is droplet precautions used?
With diseases spread by respiratory droplets. That dont last 3ft in air.
When a client is under droplet precautions what PPE is required?
surgical mask for client and nurse
When is airborne precautions used?
With diseases spread by small aerosolizied particles. Last farther than 3ft in air.
What PPE is required for a client with airborne precautions?
- respirator mask for nurse
- surgical mask for client
- negative air pressure room
What are S&Sx of TB?
- -respiratory symptoms last longer than 3 weeks
- -unexplained weight loss
- -fever and night sweats
- -cough up blood sometimes
true/false. Client on droplet precaution and nurse placing a NGT, the nurse only needs to wear mask.
False. nurse should wear mask, gloves, and gown
What are key rules about PPE?
- 1.keep hands away from face
- 2.work from clean areas to dirty areas
- 3.limit surface touch
- 4.change ppe when torn or heavily contaminated
- 5.perform hand hygiene immediately upon removal of PPE
What should you do before applying PPE and entering room?
- 1. Gather all supplies
- 2. Introduce yourself
- 3. Explain procedure
- 4. Discuss purpose of isolation
List the order of applying PPE?
- 1. gown
- 2. mask/respirator
- 3. goggles/face shield
- 4. gloves
List the order of removing PPE?
- 1. gloves
- 2. goggles/face shield
- 3. gown
- 4. mask/respirator
Where do you tie gown and where do you not tie gown?
Tie gown at neck and waist. Do not tie in front.
True/false You should never wear contaminated gown out of room.
True. new gown each time you enter room
What are the steps in putting on mask?
- 1. tie top strings
- 2. tie lower strings
- 3. pinch flexible nose piece and mask under chin
Whats the difference between FiIT testing and FIT check?
- FiIT testing is checking to see what size mask fits you.
- FIT check is checking to see if you have your respirator on properly no air leakage around it.
When should you get a new pair of gloves?
when gloves are ripped or soiled and going from dirty procedure to clean procedure.
What do you do if your in an isolation room and need additional supplies?
must remove all PPE, go get supplies, reapply PPE, or ask someone to get it for you.
What are some clean procedures?
- administering PO,IM,or IV meds
- Vital signs
- Checking I's & O's
- Making Bed with clean linen
What are some dirty procedures?
- Administering vaginal or rectal meds
- carring for a wound
- checking urine output in a catherer
- performing oral care
- changing diaper
- obtaining body fluid specimens
What part of any PPE is considered the most dirtiest?
Front or outside
What part of any PPE is considered the most cleaniest?
Back or inside
True/false Remove respirator off last and in the room.
False. Remove it last immediately outside the room
What are the steps in taking off a mask?
- 1. untie top strings
- 2. hold onto strings
- 3. untie bottom strings
- 4. pull mask away from face
List the steps in taking off a respirator?
- 1. lift bottom elastic over head
- 2. left top elastic over head
When should you reuse a respirator?
- if device has not been obviously soiled or damaged.
- if device has been worn by re-user only
True/false. CDC in 1994 published guidelines for preventing TB transmission in health care?
What are the 3 guidelines set by CDC for preventing and controlling TB?
- 1. detect infection early
- 2. protect patient closely
- 3. apply effective ppe
What precaution does TB disease fall under?
True/false Assessing a patients status and type of care to perform can be delegated to a NAP.
False. only basic care can delegated to a NAP
When do you need to wear standard precautions?
- 1. contact with mucous membranes
- 2. nonintact skin
- 3. blood
- 4. body fluids
- 5. infectious material
True/False All procedures require the use of PPE?
False. not all procedures require PPE
What is an iexpected outcome for an infectious patient.
preventing of localized or systemic infection.
Measles, chicken pox, TB, varicella are some diseases of what precaution?
Diphtheria, rubella, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, pertussis, mumps, SARS, menigitis are diseases of what precaution?
Diahrrea, VRE, MRSA, clostridium difficile, respiratory syncytial virus, shigella pathogens, wound infection, herpes, scabies are diseases of what precaution?
What can the nurse delegated to a NAP in regards to a person with any type of precaution?
- 1. review the reason they are on precautions
- 2. instruct the type of changes to be aware of
what are the 6 chains of infections?
- 1. microorganism (bacteria, virus, fungus, pathogen)
- 2. reservoir (source for organism to grow)
- 3. portal of exit (comes from the reservior)
- 4. mode of transmission (contact, airborne, droplet)
- 5. portal of entry (going into the host)
- 6. a susceptible host
how does an infection develope?
If an when any chain is broken?
what is asepsis?
absence of disease producing organisms that involves the purposeful prevention of transfer of microorganism.
what are the two types of aseptic techniques that nurses practices?
medical and surgical asepsis
what is a medical asepsis?
procedures to reduce the number of and prevent the spread of microoragnism. (hand hygeine, barrier techniques, use of gloves and gowns)
what is surgical asepsis?
procedure used to eliminate all microorganisms from an area. (operating room, labor and delivery)