Mobility Body Mechanics - Book Cards

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  1. mobility is
    the ability to move freely within the environment and is fundamental to everyday function.
  2. Independence is defined by
    the persons ability to perform ADL's, job-related activities, and role-related activities such as parent or spouse.
  3. Movement is significant in diffusing
    negative feelings and tension
  4. full mobility occurs when a person has
    no physical or psychological factors that limit mobility
  5. immobility occurs when
    the person cannot move his or her entire body or a specific body part.
  6. Clients move along this continuum as their abilities change:
    • Therapeautic treatments such as traction to repair a fracture may impair mobility.
    • some conditions lead to progressive diability
  7. maintaining upright posture requires
    proper alignmentof the bones, muscles, and joints and a stable center of gravity
  8. In a balanced center of gravity
    the weight of the body is centered and the downward forces of gravity of are balanced, The usual line of gravity starts at the top of the head and bisect the shoulders, trunk, weight bearing joints, and base of support. It runs slightly anterior to the sacrum.
  9. In an older person the center of gravity moves to :
    the lumbar spine tends to flatten and the upper spine and head tilt forward causing the head to fall forward from the usual line of gravity.
  10. if a person begins to fall to one side the extensor muscles:
    on that side stiffen and the opposite side relax to prevent falling.
  11. the crebellum coordinates
    the motor activites of movement
  12. the cerebral cortex initiates
    voluntary motor activity
  13. the basal ganglia maintain
  14. body mechanics can be defined as
    using alignment, posture, and balance in coordinated effort to perform activities such as bending, lifting, and moving.
  15. some general rules for body mechanics include the following:
    • 1: assess the situation carefully before acting.
    • 2.use the legs large muscle group whenever possible to provide the force of movement.
    • 3. perform work at the appropriate height for body position.
    • 4. use a mechanical lift or assistance whenever needed for ease to move.
  16. aerobic exercise requires
    oxygen to use the energy provided by the metabolic acivities of skeletal muscles.
  17. anaerobic exercise occurs when
    the muscle cannot extract enough oxygen from the blood and anaerobic pathways provide additional energy for a short time.
  18. isotonic exercise is a dynamic form of exercise with
    constant muscle tension, muscle contraction, and active movement.
  19. isometric exercise is static exercise by which the client
    tenses a muscle, holding stationary while maintaining tension.
  20. range of motion (ROM) is the ability to
    move all joints through the full extent of intended function. Each joint must be kept actively moving for the joints to maintain mobility, muscles to maintain strength, and the cardiovascular system to function properly.
  21. The normal walking gait has the following two phases:
    • the stance phase is composed of three events: heel strike, midstance, and push-off.
    • the swing phase completes the walking gait with another three events: acceleration, swing through, and deceleration.
  22. The maxim "use it or lose it" means
    the person must use it regularly to maintain funtion.
  23. Conditining is promoted by
    30 minutes of strenuous exercising three times a week.
  24. The following influence muscle strength:
    fluid and electrolyte levels, exercise, conditioning, nutrition and condition of tendons, ligaments, or soft tissue.
  25. the following are essential to maintaining bone resiliance and an intact skeletal system:
    adequate dietary calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin B.
  26. demineralizaton of bones such as osteoporosis increases
    the risk of fractures
  27. rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis), and gout
    limit mobility cause it causes pain.
  28. A client must be placed on bedrest for the following reasons:
    • to promote healing a tissue repair by decreasing metabolic needs
    • to relieve edema (swelling)
    • to reduce the body's oxygen requirements
    • to decrease pain
    • to support a weak, exhausted, or febrile client
    • to avoid dislodging a deep vein thrombosis
  29. the client with altered mobility may have the following symptoms:
    • decreased muscle strength and tone
    • lack of coordination
    • altered gait
    • falls
    • decreased joint flexibility
    • pain on movement
    • decreased ability to tolerate activity
  30. flaccidity is
    decreased muscle tone
  31. spasticity is
    increased muscle tone
  32. ataxia is
    impaired muscle coordination
  33. tremor is
    rhythmic repetitive movement that can occur at rest or when movement is initiated.
  34. chorea is
    spontaneous, brief, involuntary muscle twitching in the limbs or face.
  35. athetosis is
    movement characterized by slow irregular twisting movements
  36. dystonia is
    similar to athetosis but involves larger areas of body.
  37. an ataxic gait is
    staggering and unsteadiness
  38. spastic gait is
    walking appears stiff and toes appear to catch and drag.
  39. waddling gait is
    walking with feet wide apart in a ducklike fashion
  40. hemiplegic gait is when
    one leg is paralyzed or neurologically damaged so the leg is dragged or swung forward to propel it forward
  41. festinating gait is
    walking on the toes as if being pushed, common in parkinson's disease.
  42. a contracture is
    the progressive shortening of a muscle and loss of joint mobility resulting from fibrotic changes in tissues surrounding the joint.
Card Set
Mobility Body Mechanics - Book Cards
Mobility and Body Mechanics Book Cards.
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