Ch. 23 Obstructive Lung Disease: COPD, Asthma, and Related Diseases

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  1. State of worsening, often defined by the need to increase medication or to escalate care
    Acute exacerbation of COPD
  2. State of airways that cause them to constrict abnormally in response to stress or insults, e.g., exercise, inhaled materials like dust, allergens, etc.
    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)
  3. Acute inflammation of the lungs contracted from the environment (as distinguished from nosocomial, or hospital - acquired pneumonia
    airway inflammation
  4. State of abnormally slowed expiration, characterized most commonly by a decrease in FEV1
    Airway Obstruction
  5. Respiratory disorder characterized by recurring episodes of paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing on expiration/inspiration caused by the constriction of the bronchi, coughing and viscous mucoid bronchial secretions. The episodes maybe precipitated by inhalation of allergens or pollutants, infection, cold air, vigorous exercise, or emotional stress. Also called bronchial asthma.
  6. Abnormal condition of the bronchial tree characterized by irreversible dilation and destruction of the bronchial walls.
  7. Substance, especially a drug that relaxes contractions of the smooth muscle of the bronchioles to improve ventilation to the lungs. Pharmacologic bronchodilators are prescribed to improve aeration in asthma, Bronchiectasis, bronchitis, and emphysema.
  8. Abnormal contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi, resulting in an acute narrowing and obstruction
  9. Acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the tracheobronchial tree
    Chronic Bronchitis
  10. Autosomal recessive disease characterized by pancreatic insufficiency, abnormally thick secretions from the exocrine glands, and an increased concentration of sodium and chloride in the sweat glands, known in Europe as mucoviscidosis.
    Cystic Fibrosis
  11. Destructive process of the lung parenchyma leading to permanent enlargement of the distal air sacs; classified as either centrilobular (CLE) which mainly involves the respiratory bronchioles or panlobular (PLE) which can involve the entire terminal respiratory unit.
  12. Mechanical ventilation performed without intubation or tracheostomy, usually with mask ventilation.
    Non-invasive ventilation
  13. Oxygen delivered at concentration exceeding 21% to increase the amount circulating to the blood.
    Supplemental Oxygen
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Ch. 23 Obstructive Lung Disease: COPD, Asthma, and Related Diseases
Respiratory Therapy Terminology Ch. 23
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