Card Set Information
18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Quartz is a mineral because it is
natural, inorganic, and has a crystalline structure
Granite is a rock because it is
made up of several minerals.
One of the following mineral properties can be determined by observing, rather than doing something to a sample.
When hit with a hammer, most minerals will
break along smooth cleavage surfaces.
An igneous rock that formed by rapid cooling will probably have crystals that are
Igneous rocks are
the most common rock type in the earth's crust
A fine-crystalline igneous rock is probably
Minerals that break along certain planes have
Rhyolite (fine-crystalline) is to granite (coarse-crystalline) as basalt is to
tend to crystallize first from a slowly cooling magma.
Residual elements that did not fit into the crystal structure of minerals formed during cooling
crystallize along with quartz in rock fractures
Most rocks are composed of minerals that are
Particles resulting from weathering of rocks are compressed and cemented to form
Conglomerate, sandstone, and claystone are identified by
Which of the following statements about metamorphic rocks is
Gneiss to schist to slate is a continuous transition in the metamorphism of shale.
Materials that settle out of water are known as
In which type of rock would you expect to find fossils?
A rock made up of cemented sand grains is
Which of the following does not belong with the others?
The elements that occur most frequently in the earth's crust are
silicon and oxygen
Most of the earth's mass is contained in the
The idea of a spreading sea floor along the Mid-Atlantic ridge is supported by
all of these support the sea-floor spreading hypothesis.
The north end of a compass needle actually points toward a
south magnetic pole.
According to the plate tectonics theory, sea-floor spreading occurs at a
The San Andreas Fault is the site of a
The presence of an oceanic trench, a chain of volcanic mountains along the edge of a continent, and deep-seated earthquakes is characteristic of
ocean-continent plate convergence.
According to the plate tectonics theory, new crustal material is created at
divergent plate boundaries.
The Himalayan Mountains were formed as a result of
continent-continent plate convergence.
When an oceanic plate and continental plate converge
the oceanic plate is subducted beneath the continental plate.
Japan is a group of arc islands associated with
the convergence of two oceanic plates.
One of the following cooled too quickly to allow crystals to form.
Heat and pressure can change slate to the metamorphic rock schist. What is probably formed when more heat and pressure acts on schist?
Magma that cools slowly beneath the earth's surface produces
intrusive igneous rocks
A fine-grained igneous rock made of mostly orthoclase feldspar, quartz crystals, and a few ferromagnesian crystals is probably
Igneous rocks are classified by
mineral composition and texture.
People have found the principle of uniformity difficult to accept because
all of these are true.
The way a given rock responds to a stress depends on
all of these are true.
When subjected to stress, rocks at great depths and high temperature tend to undergo
A rock that experiences plastic strain in response to stress
cannot return to its original shape when the stress is relieved.
An arch-shaped fold resulting from plastic deformation is called
The chief difference between a joint and a fault is that
jointing involves breaking without relative displacement.
Seismic waves are produced when rocks
rupture or break under stress.
Which of the following statements about earthquakes is false?
The location of the focus of an earthquake can be pinpointed by seismic readings from two stations.
If you are inside a building when an earthquake occurs, the best strategy is to
move under a table or desk.
The point of initial rock movement along a fault during an earthquake is called the
Sedimentary rocks are classified by
sediment size or chemical composition
Metamorphic rocks are classified according to
degree of foliation or recrystallization
What process in the rock cycle are you performing if you mix your garbage in your garden
What are the two elements that occur most frequently in minerals found in the crust?
oxygen and silicon
How was Hawaiian Islands formed?
They were formed volcanic.
Which sequence of processes occurs in the correct order?
weathering, erosion, transportation
Weathering involves the
mechanical and chemical breakup of rocks.
Which of the following materials is least susceptible to chemical weathering?
The type of mass movement characterized by the slow downhill movement of soil is called
Glaciers form when
snow accumulates to form ice, which begins to flow
A stream in its youth exhibits which of the following sets of characteristics?
steep gradient and a V-shaped valley
Which of the following statements about a meandering stream is true?
Meanders result in the widening of a valley floor.
Where are the least dense rocks found on the earth?
Dissolving a rock in acid is the equivalent of
Carrying rock fragments to a new location is called
What is the core of the earth mostly made of?
Why do seismic waves show a sudden increase at the mohorovicic discontinuity?
They increase because of changes in the composition of the materials.
What causes the presence of red soils of Oklahoma and Georgia?
Red soil is a result of the presence of iron compounds in the soil composition.
The Age of the Mammals is known as the _____.
What type layers make up Columbia Plateau in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon?
layers of basalt that accumulated from lava flows
The oldest fossils are about how many years old?
3.5 billion years
Which of the following is
a common way for fossils to form?
preservation of soft parts by freezing
The fossilization process by which the original material is dissolved and new materials added is called
A road cut shows layers of sedimentary rock that are uptilted. From this observation one could conclude that the rocks
have been subjected to deformational stress.
Correlating and relative dating of rock units is made possible by application of the principle of
All of these can be used.
Fossils are useful for all of the following
determining the exact age of the earth.
To serve as a geologic clock, a process must
All of these must be true
The process that has yielded the most accurate estimate of the age of the earth is measurement of
the radioactive decay of elements in minerals
The geologic time scale defines eras in terms of
major worldwide extinctions of life on earth
Correlation and relative dating through the use of index fossils is limited because
index fossils are rarely found in other than sedimentary rocks
Earth's atmosphere is composed chiefly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
DON'T ERASE THIS ONE
What era would you find dinosaur fossils?
Name the two dominant life forms in the Cambrian period.
trilobites, echinoderms, mollusks, brachiopods
An airplane flying at 35,000 feet is above what percent of the earth's atmosphere?
Normal atmospheric pressure is enough to support a column of mercury approximately
76.0 cm high.
Your ears "pop" when an unpressurized plane climbs higher because
air is moving from your eardrum to the outside.
Nearly 1400 watts/meter
of solar energy reaches the outermost atmosphere of the earth. What fraction of this energy on average actually reaches the surface?
A psychrometer measures
The majority of the sun's radiation output occurs as
The greenhouse effect results in warmer temperatures near the surface because
some of the energy that would ordinarily escape is re-radiated toward the surface.
The interaction between ultraviolet light and ozone that protects life on the surface takes place in the
On a clear, calm night, you would expect the air in the bottom of a valley to be
cooler than that on a hillside.
Hot air rising from the equatorial regions eventually cools and descends to form
a belt of dry, high-pressure air