Physical Science

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Author:
megxcorkie
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106012
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Physical Science
Updated:
2011-10-05 10:03:48
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Midterm
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18, 19, 20, 21, 22
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  1. Quartz is a mineral because it is
    • natural, inorganic, and has a crystalline structure
  2. Granite is a rock because it is
    made up of several minerals.
  3. One of the following mineral properties can be determined by observing, rather than doing something to a sample.
    luster
  4. When hit with a hammer, most minerals will
    break along smooth cleavage surfaces.
  5. An igneous rock that formed by rapid cooling will probably have crystals that are
    small
  6. Igneous rocks are
    the most common rock type in the earth's crust
  7. A fine-crystalline igneous rock is probably
    extrusive
  8. Minerals that break along certain planes have
    cleavage.
  9. Rhyolite (fine-crystalline) is to granite (coarse-crystalline) as basalt is to
    gabbro
  10. Ferromagnesian minerals
    tend to crystallize first from a slowly cooling magma.
  11. Residual elements that did not fit into the crystal structure of minerals formed during cooling
    crystallize along with quartz in rock fractures
  12. Most rocks are composed of minerals that are
    silicate.
  13. Particles resulting from weathering of rocks are compressed and cemented to form
    sedimentary rocks
  14. Conglomerate, sandstone, and claystone are identified by
    particle size.
  15. Which of the following statements about metamorphic rocks is not true?
    Gneiss to schist to slate is a continuous transition in the metamorphism of shale.
  16. Materials that settle out of water are known as
    sediments
  17. In which type of rock would you expect to find fossils?
    shale
  18. A rock made up of cemented sand grains is
    sandstone
  19. Which of the following does not belong with the others?
    marble
  20. The elements that occur most frequently in the earth's crust are
    silicon and oxygen
  21. Most of the earth's mass is contained in the
    mantle.
  22. The idea of a spreading sea floor along the Mid-Atlantic ridge is supported by
    all of these support the sea-floor spreading hypothesis.
  23. The north end of a compass needle actually points toward a
    south magnetic pole.
  24. According to the plate tectonics theory, sea-floor spreading occurs at a
    divergent boundary
  25. The San Andreas Fault is the site of a
    transform boundary
  26. The presence of an oceanic trench, a chain of volcanic mountains along the edge of a continent, and deep-seated earthquakes is characteristic of
    ocean-continent plate convergence.
  27. According to the plate tectonics theory, new crustal material is created at
    divergent plate boundaries.
  28. The Himalayan Mountains were formed as a result of
    continent-continent plate convergence.
  29. When an oceanic plate and continental plate converge
    the oceanic plate is subducted beneath the continental plate.
  30. Japan is a group of arc islands associated with
    the convergence of two oceanic plates.
  31. One of the following cooled too quickly to allow crystals to form.
    obsidian
  32. Heat and pressure can change slate to the metamorphic rock schist. What is probably formed when more heat and pressure acts on schist?
    gneiss
  33. Magma that cools slowly beneath the earth's surface produces
    intrusive igneous rocks
  34. A fine-grained igneous rock made of mostly orthoclase feldspar, quartz crystals, and a few ferromagnesian crystals is probably
    rhyolite
  35. Igneous rocks are classified by
    mineral composition and texture.
  36. People have found the principle of uniformity difficult to accept because
    all of these are true.
  37. The way a given rock responds to a stress depends on
    all of these are true.
  38. When subjected to stress, rocks at great depths and high temperature tend to undergo
    plastic strain.
  39. A rock that experiences plastic strain in response to stress
    cannot return to its original shape when the stress is relieved.
  40. An arch-shaped fold resulting from plastic deformation is called
    an anticline.
  41. The chief difference between a joint and a fault is that
    jointing involves breaking without relative displacement.
  42. Seismic waves are produced when rocks
    rupture or break under stress.
  43. Which of the following statements about earthquakes is false?
    The location of the focus of an earthquake can be pinpointed by seismic readings from two stations.
  44. If you are inside a building when an earthquake occurs, the best strategy is to
    move under a table or desk.
  45. The point of initial rock movement along a fault during an earthquake is called the
    focus
  46. Sedimentary rocks are classified by
    sediment size or chemical composition
  47. Metamorphic rocks are classified according to
    degree of foliation or recrystallization
  48. What process in the rock cycle are you performing if you mix your garbage in your garden
    weathering, sedimentation
  49. What are the two elements that occur most frequently in minerals found in the crust?
    oxygen and silicon
  50. How was Hawaiian Islands formed?
    They were formed volcanic.
  51. Which sequence of processes occurs in the correct order?
    weathering, erosion, transportation
  52. Weathering involves the
    mechanical and chemical breakup of rocks.
  53. Which of the following materials is least susceptible to chemical weathering?
    Quartz
  54. The type of mass movement characterized by the slow downhill movement of soil is called
    creep.
  55. Glaciers form when
    snow accumulates to form ice, which begins to flow
  56. A stream in its youth exhibits which of the following sets of characteristics?
    steep gradient and a V-shaped valley
  57. Which of the following statements about a meandering stream is true?
    Meanders result in the widening of a valley floor.
  58. Where are the least dense rocks found on the earth?
    Earth's crust
  59. Dissolving a rock in acid is the equivalent of
    chemical weathering.
  60. Carrying rock fragments to a new location is called
    transportation.
  61. What is the core of the earth mostly made of?
    Iron
  62. Why do seismic waves show a sudden increase at the mohorovicic discontinuity?
    They increase because of changes in the composition of the materials.
  63. What causes the presence of red soils of Oklahoma and Georgia?
    Red soil is a result of the presence of iron compounds in the soil composition.
  64. The Age of the Mammals is known as the _____.
    Cenozoic era
  65. What type layers make up Columbia Plateau in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon?
    layers of basalt that accumulated from lava flows
  66. The oldest fossils are about how many years old?
    3.5 billion years
  67. Which of the following is not a common way for fossils to form?
    preservation of soft parts by freezing
  68. The fossilization process by which the original material is dissolved and new materials added is called
    replacement.
  69. A road cut shows layers of sedimentary rock that are uptilted. From this observation one could conclude that the rocks
    have been subjected to deformational stress.
  70. Correlating and relative dating of rock units is made possible by application of the principle of
    All of these can be used.
  71. Fossils are useful for all of the following except
    determining the exact age of the earth.
  72. To serve as a geologic clock, a process must
    All of these must be true
  73. The process that has yielded the most accurate estimate of the age of the earth is measurement of
    the radioactive decay of elements in minerals
  74. The geologic time scale defines eras in terms of
    major worldwide extinctions of life on earth
  75. Correlation and relative dating through the use of index fossils is limited because
    index fossils are rarely found in other than sedimentary rocks
  76. Earth's atmosphere is composed chiefly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
    DON'T ERASE THIS ONE
  77. What era would you find dinosaur fossils?
    Paleozoic
  78. Name the two dominant life forms in the Cambrian period.
    trilobites, echinoderms, mollusks, brachiopods
  79. Cenozoic
    F
  80. An airplane flying at 35,000 feet is above what percent of the earth's atmosphere?
    75%
  81. Normal atmospheric pressure is enough to support a column of mercury approximately
    76.0 cm high.
  82. Your ears "pop" when an unpressurized plane climbs higher because
    air is moving from your eardrum to the outside.
  83. Nearly 1400 watts/meter2 of solar energy reaches the outermost atmosphere of the earth. What fraction of this energy on average actually reaches the surface?
    50%
  84. A psychrometer measures
    relative humidity.
  85. The majority of the sun's radiation output occurs as
    infrared radiation.
  86. The greenhouse effect results in warmer temperatures near the surface because
    some of the energy that would ordinarily escape is re-radiated toward the surface.
  87. The interaction between ultraviolet light and ozone that protects life on the surface takes place in the
    stratosphere.
  88. On a clear, calm night, you would expect the air in the bottom of a valley to be
    cooler than that on a hillside.
  89. Hot air rising from the equatorial regions eventually cools and descends to form
    a belt of dry, high-pressure air

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