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2011-10-03 13:28:51

ch5 a&p for tissues
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  1. tissues
    cells, the basic units of structure and function in the human organism, organized into groups.
  2. Epithelial tissues
    Covers organs, forms the inner lining of body cavities, and lines hollow organs.

    It always has a free (apical) surface exposed to the outside or internally to an open space.
  3. Basement membrane
    the underside of epithelial tissue that is anchored to connective tissue by a thin non living layer
  4. Types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nurvous
  5. What is the function of epithelial tissue?
    Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion
  6. What are epithelial tissues located?
    cover body surface, covr and line internal organs, compose glands.
  7. What are the characteristics of epithelial tissues?
    Lack blood vessels, readily divide;cells are tightly packed.
  8. What is the function of connective tissue?
    Bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells
  9. Where are connective tissue found in the body?
    They are widely distributed throughout the body.
  10. What is the characteristics of connective tissue?
    Mostly have good blood supply; cells are farther apart than epithelial cells.
  11. What is the function of muscle tissue?
  12. Where is the muscle tissue located?
    Attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, heart
  13. What is the distinguishing characteristics of muscle tissue?
    Able to contract in response to specific stimuli
  14. What is the function of Nervous tissue?
    Transmit impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception
  15. Where is nervous tissue located?
    Brain, spinal cord, nerves
  16. What is the distinguishing characteristics of nervous tissue?
    Cells communicate with each other and other body parts.
  17. Squamous
    thin, fattened cell
  18. cuboidal
    cube-shaped cells
  19. columnar
    toll, elongated cells
  20. simple
    single layer of cells
  21. stratified
    two or more layers of cells
  22. Simple squamous epithelium
    • Single layer of thin, flattened cells.
    • nuclei are usually broad and thin.
    • Function: diffusion and filtration, osmosis: covers surfaces.
    • example: air sacs of the lungs, forms the walls of capillaries, lines the insides of blood and lymph vessels, and covers the membranes that line body cavities.
  23. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Single layer of cube-shaped cells.
    • centrally located, spherical nuclei
    • Function: Secretion, absorption
    • location: covers the ovaris and lines most of the kidney tubules and the ducts of certain glands.
  24. Simple columnar epithelium
    • single layer of cells with elongated nuclei usually located at about the same level, near the basement membrane.
    • Function: Absorption, secretion, protection.
    • can be cilia or nonciliate.
    • cilia-female reproductiv tract, move the egg cell through the uterine tube to the urterus.
    • nonciliated-lines the uterus and portions of digestive tract, stomach, small and large intestines.
    • goblet cells secrete mucus onto free surface of tissue.
  25. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • appear to be stratified but are not.
    • nuclei lie at two or more levels in the row or aligned cells.
    • commonly have cilia
    • Function:protection, secretion, movement of mucus
    • example: line the passages of the respiratory system.
  26. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • many cell layers .cells divide in the deeper layers, and newer cells push older ones farther outward, where they flatten out.
    • function: protection
    • Example: outer layer of the skin (epidermis).
    • also the oral cavity, esophagus, vagina and anal canal.
  27. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • two or three layers of cubodal cells that form the lining of a lumen.
    • example: lines the larger ducts of the mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands and pancreas.
    • line the female and male reproductive systems.
  28. Statified Columnar epithelium
    • Several layers of cells, superficial cells are columnar and basal layers consist of cubodal cells.
    • function: protection, secretion
    • Found: male urethra and ductus deferns and in parts of the pharynx.
  29. Transitional epithelium
    • Specialized to change in response to increased tension.
    • function: distensibility, protection
    • Forms the inner lining of the urinary bladder and lines the ureters and the superior urethra.
  30. Glandular epithelium
    • composed of cells specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids
    • Usually found withincolumnar or cuboidal epithelium
    • one or more of these cells constituet a gland.
    • found in salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands.
  31. exocrine gland
    • Glands that secrete their products into ducts that open onto surfaces, such as the skin or the lining of the digestive tract.
    • Three types:
    • Merocrine, Apocrine, Holocrine
  32. endocrine glands
    Glands that secrete their products into tissue fluid or blood.
  33. merocrine glands
    • Glands that release fluid by exocytosis.
    • Example:Salivary glands, pancreatic glands, sweat glands of the skin.
  34. Apocrine Gland
    • Cellular product and portions of the free ends of glandular cells pinch off during secretion.
    • Example: Mmmary glands, ceruminous glands lining the external ear canal.
  35. Holocrine glands
    • Disintegrated entire cells filled with secretory products.
    • Example: Sebaceous glands of the skin
  36. Connective tissues
    • Binds structures, provide support and protection, serve as frameworks, fills spaces, stores fat, produce blood cells, protects against infections and help repair tissue damage.
    • Have abundace of extracellular matrix between them.
    • Two major categories:
    • loose and dense connective tissues.
    • Specialized connective tissue:
    • Cartilage, bone, and blood
  37. Fibroblasts
    • most common type of fixed cell in connective tissue.
    • Function: produce fibers
    • Three types of connective tissue fibers:
    • Collagenous fibers
    • Elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  38. Macrophages
    • or histocyts, originate as white bood cells.
    • function:carry on phagocytosis
    • can move about and function as scavenger and defensive cells that clear foreign particles from tissues.
  39. Mast cells
    • large and widely distributed in connective tissues. usually near blood vessels.
    • function: Secrete heparin and histamine.
  40. Collagenous fibers
    • Thick treads of the protein collagen.
    • They resist considerable pulling force.
    • Hold structures together such as:
    • ligaments
    • tendons
  41. ligaments
    • collagenous fibers that hod structures together.
    • connects bones to bones
  42. tendons
    • collagenous fibers that hold structures together.
    • connect muscles to bone
  43. Elastic fibers
    • composed of springlike protein called elastin.
    • Streches easily.
    • yellow fibers
    • example:vocal cords
  44. Reticular fibers
    • thin collagenous fibers
    • form delicate supporting networks like the spleen.
  45. Loose connective tissue
    Includes areolar tissue, adipose tissue, and reticular connective tissue.
  46. Areolar tissue
    • delicate, thin membranes throughout the body.
    • mainly fibroblasts.
    • Function: binds the skin to the underlying organs and fills spaces between muscles.
  47. Ddipose tissue
    • Fat
    • lies beneath the skin in spaces between muscles, around the kidneys, behind the eyeballs, in certain abdominal membranes, on the surface of the heart and around certain joints.
    • Function: cushins joins ans some organs, insulates beneath the skin and stores energy in fat molecules.
  48. Reticular connective tissue
    • thin collagenous fibers in a three dimensional network.
    • function: provide the framework of certain internal organs, such as liver and spleen.