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How many cells are needed for a neoplasm to arise?
1 = clonal
proper term for malignant cancers?
What is Parenchyma?
cells that determine the organ or cell produced
What is stroma?
general coonetive tissue and BV of new growths
T/F There is stroma in soft, fleshy tumors
Three tumor causes? (HEN)
Two locations and types of benign tumors that will kill just b/c of their location?
- Meningioma = brain
- Myxoma = heart
glands including liver and kidney
cystic mass lined from neoplastic glandular cells
growths above skin or mucosal surface, neoplastic or non-neoplastic (inflammation)
Carcinomas (malignant) of basal cells or adnexa (hair, sweat glands)
Basal cell carcinoma
Carcinoma of duct or columnar cell origin?
What are the two epithelial tumors from placenta?
- Hydatidiform mole = benign
- Choriocarcinoma = malignant
What are the two most common germ cell carcinomas, common in testicular tumor?
- Seminoma (dysgerminoma in females) = estes
- Embryonal carcinoma
Teratoma origin? benign? Mature
- Totipotent origin, from all three germ cell layers
- benign: mature teratoma, cystic variety frome ectoderm
- malignant: immature teratoma
- benign tumor of mesenchyme w/ mucoid appearance
- ** most common tumor of heats in adults
T/F There are benign hematopoietic neoplasms?
Two hematopoietic neoplasms?
Three Nervous system neoplasms
- Pieces of one mature tissue present w/i another, developmental anomaly
- Locations: pancreas, gastric tissue (meckel's diverticulum), lingual thyroid, endometriosis, lacrimal gland tissue in conjunctiva
T/F Endometriosis outside of uterine cavity is a developmental anomaly
F, the only one of the Heterotopias that is not developmental
Choristoma? 4 Locations?
- def: One or more mature tissues come together to form tumor mass at random site
- location: conjunctiva, cartilage, Sm mm, lacrimal gl
- -focal malformation of a mixture of tissues that are native to that area
- -benign neoplasia
Malignant change in cell
4 steps for the malignancy of a tumor cell?
- Local invasion
- Distant Metasteses
- how close a neoplastic cell resembles comparable normal cells
- (e.g. benign cells are indistinguishable)
Lack of differentiation, malignant characteristic
disordered growth, precancer
What is the largest life-compatible tumor?
1kg = 10 doublings from 1g
- how many cells are proliferating
- -measure by S-phase
What is the origin of cancer?
- more aggressive behavior = more malignant potential
- ** occurs b/c of multiple mutations
pop. of cells that differ with respect to phenotype
synonym for invasion meaning direct invasion of adjacent tissue or organ
Tumor implant discontinuous w/ primary tumor
Two malignancies that do not metastasize?
- glioma = brain
- basal cell carcinoma = skin
What are the three pathways of metastasis?
- Blood borne (hematogenesis)
What is the most important determinant of prognosis for most cancers?
Stage: how far the tumor has spread
- Def: breaks through to an open field and spreads onto surfaces of space
- Ex: ovarian, gastric/pancreatic, intestinal, lung, CNS, urinary tract
Lymphatic spread examples?
- Carcinoma and some sarcomas
- Ex: oral (cervical nodes), breast (axillary), lung (perihilar), colon (paracolic)
What procedure is peformed if carcinoma has entered lymph travel?
What is sentinel node biopsy?
Removal of closest node to cancer = less likely to form lymphedema
- ** mostly sarcomas
- ** usually venous, arterial mainly from lungs
- Ex.: lungs, liver