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Type V Construction
- Wood Frame Construction
- Strengths: Easy to breach/ventilate, resistant to collapse from earthquake, debris easy to manage
- Weaknesses: Susceptible to fire inside/outside, susceptible to total collapse, susceptible to water damage
Type IV Construction
- Heavy Timber Construction
- Strength: Resist collapse to flame impingement, stable, easy to ventilate, easy to breach, manageable debris
- Weakness: Susceptible to fire spread & water damage, potential for flame to spread to other structures, rapid interior flame spread
Type II Construction
- Noncombustible Construction
- Strength: Almost as resistive as Type I, confine fire, almost as stable as Type I, easier to vertically ventilate
- Weakness: Difficult to breach, steel structure can fail, roof less stable, steel components subject to heat/rust/corrosion, massive debris with collapse
Type I Construction
- Strength: Resist direct flame impingement, confines fire, little collapse potential, impervious to water damage
- Weakness: Difficult to breach, difficult to ventilate, massive debris, floors/ceilings/walls retain heat
Fire Load/ Heavy Fire Load
- Fire Load- maximum heat that can be produced if all combustibles in an area burns.
- Heavy Fire Load- Presence of large amounts of combustible materials in an area.
What type of roof covering has the most potential to spread fire?
What is a sign that a structure may have questionable stability?
Signs of a building collapse
- Cracks or seperation in walls, floors, ceilings & roof structures.
- Presence of tie rods & stars that hold walls together.
- Loose bricks, blocks, or stones falling.
- Deteriorated mortor
- Leaning walls
- Distorted structural members
What are all trusses made up from?
One or more triangles (the strongest geometric shape known)
- Found in older buildings
- Car dealerships, bowling alleys, factories & supermarkets
- Round, Dome-shaped roof
- Could be surrounded by parapets or false points
How much can steel beams elongated during a fire?
50' sections can elongate up to 4" @ temp of 1,000F or higher.
How long does it take light-weight wood or steel trusses to fail?
5 to 10 minutes exposure to fire.
What can reduce the chances of gusset plates warping & pulling out during fire?
What are some hazards in building renovation?
Occupants & belongings may still be in building, fire alarm systems may be deactivated & blocked exits.
What can contribute to fire spread in abandoned buildings?
Breached walls, open stairwells, missing doors & deactivated fire protection systems.
Why are buildings under construction suseptible to fire spread?
Because many of the protective features; such as gypsum wallboard & sprinklers are not in place.
The collapse zone
Area extending away from building 1 1/2 times the height of the wall.
Dangerous building conditions
- Fire loading
- Combustible furnishings & finishes
- Roof coverings
- Wooden floors & ceilings
- Large, open spaces
- Building collapse
What is the proper ventilation for large open spaces?
Vertical ventilation is essential for slowing the spread of fire.
Final outside cover that is placed on the top of a roof deck assembly.
Heavy Fire Loading
The presence of large amounts of combustible materials in an area.
The maximum heat that can be produced if all the combustible materials in an area burn.
The two primary dangerous conditions posed by a building
- Conditions that contribute to the spread & intensity of the fire
- Conditions that make the building suseptible to collapse
Signs when sizing up a building
- Age of the building
- Construction materials
- Roof type
- Renovations or modifications
- Dead loads; HVAC units, water tanks, etc.
What are cantilever walls?
Walls that extend beyond the structure that supports them (overhang).
The reaction of wood to fire conditions depends mainly on what?
The size of the wood and moisture content
What is the most common building material used today?