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Who was the most powerful monarch in the second half of the 16th century? What territories did he have?
- Philip II
- Everything that belonged to Charles V (except for Holy Roman Empire) and Portugal
Spain had a large standing army and navy of 50,000 and 150,000 people, respectively. Their economy depended mostly on _______.
Spain had 9000 monasteries and 8 million people (high ratio). They were very religious and this was the cause of the inquisition which was constituted of public burnings called ________.
Auto da fe
Charles advised Philip to be in charge of everything so he was a little slow at times. Who were his wives? Explain the significance of each.
- Mary of Portugal-She died after birthin' dem babiez (Don Carlos)
- Mary Tudor- cousin who died during the treaty of Cateau Cambresis after Spain beat France in the battle of St. Quentin so Philip married...
- Elizabeth Valois-She was married to Philip to seal the deal in Cateau Cambresis. She gave birth to Clara Eugenia who ruled as a regent in the Netherlands
- Anne of Austria- She gave Philip all of the remaining Hapsburg lands
Describe some of the features of the Escorial.
- It had a church and a monastery and a mausoleum.
- St. Quentin (the battle for which Escorial was built) was fought on St. Lawrence's day. It was set up like a grill, because St. Lawrence was grilled!
Describe Philip II.
He was awkward and had no sense of humor in public. He liked art and music. He worked hard and was never corruptable. he was very ppious and family oriented.
Tell the story of Don Carlos.
He was always melancholy and depressed. He was studying at the university and he went with his friends and terrorized people. He was chasing a girl and he fell down the stairs. he damaged his brain and he got all messed up so he began to support the revels in the Netherlands. He told his uncle Don Juan (of Austria) about this plan and then Philip locked him in the castle. Carlos tried to commit suicide after being threatened with the inquisition. He didn't eat and then shocked his stomach. Before dying, he took the sacraments and converted.
In 1568, Philip put down a _______ rebellion and dispersed all the people. He Christianized their children. Later, he beat the Turks at _______ by joining with other European powers.
Miguel de Cervantes wrote what book? What inspired him?
- Don Quixote (de la Mancha)
- He fought at Lepanto, lost a hand, and was captured by pirates.
Philip wasn't from the Netherlands like Charles V and he was too busy to go there most of the time so they didn't like him too much. Who did he make regent of the Netherlands? What were his/her religious views? What impact did they have?
- Margaret of Parma
- CATHOLIC, brah and she convinced Philip not to bring the Inquisition to the Netherlands so he stopped it in 1556. This allowed Protestants to do all that they wanted and they plotted against the government. They raised armies, attacked Catholic churches (destroyed relics) and worshiped freely.
Upon seeing the Protestants running all over Margaret of Parma, what did Philip do? What resulted?
He sent the Duke of Alva (highest position for a noble) to straighten things out and he quartered troops in people's homes and they were mad. Alva had tribunals that killed 1000s of people. Alva needed money so he taxed the Dutch and they wree mad. In the meantime, William of Orange (a Protestant leader who happens to have a very chait name) had staged and lost two rebellions.
When Philip sent a bunch of Ducats to Alva, what happened?
They were captured by privateers wo were supported by England.
Before Philip fired Alva, the _______ joined with William of Orange againt Spain. However, they were antagonized by the __________ and they said "no, no, no"
How did Philip replace Alva? What happened?
- He sent another guy who died and Don Juan of Austria who took a while to get there
- The unpaid Spanish troops mutinied and attacked people so the Catholics joined William of Orange AGAIN and the Calvinists attacked them AGAIN.
Who came to help out Don Juan of Austria in the Netherlands?
Allesandro Farnese (Margaret of Parma's son)
The South of the Netherlands became ________ and the North became ________. Francese was put in charge, and the North united with the _______________. THe South then responded by becomne the ________________ (now Belgium).
- Union of Utrecht
- Spanish Netherlands
Philip put a price on WIlliam's head and he was killed in 1584. The next year, Elizabeth sent troops to the Netherlands headed by who? What happened with him?
Allesandro Farnese (Duke of Parma) was replaced by whom?
Isabel Clara Eugenia
Philip signed a truce with the North Netherlands in 1609 but the 30 years war started in 1621. When did it end? What treaty ended it?
Who went around and attacked Spanish settlements and towns and got approximately 600,000 pounds (IDK how to write the symbol) of contraband (270,000 of which went to Elizabeth)?
Philip set up the Armada when Elizabeth executed ___________ who was succeeded by ___________, a Protestant ruler.
- Mary Queen of Scots
- James of Scotland
Who was the original head of the Armada? Who succeeded him shortly after he died?
- Marquis of Santa Cruz
- Duke of Medina Sidonia
Who was supposed to lead the land based attack of London (for the Spanish)?
Alessandro Farnese (Duke of Parma)
When Elizabeth got word of the Armada's formation, she had Drake attack what city to destroy Spanish ships?
The Armada had more soldiers or sailors?
They planned on coming up to English ships, cannonading the side of them, and then hopping onboard. However, the English had fast ships with long cannon ranges so the Spanish had a disadvantage.
Who was the naval leader who encouraged Elizabeth to spend money on the English armada?
The Pope gave Philip money for the Armada on what condition?
When Philip made the cardinals swear to uphold this agreement, what was the result?
- Philip had to win
- They spread the word and it got to England
When did the Armada sail?
What was the first bad thing that happened to it?
- May 1588
- They got caught in a storm near Ireland and they had to come back to a port in north Spain. They didn't sail again until July.
Where did the Spanish and English meet?
What happened after the English started winning?
- Medina Sidonia brought the troops out of the way by going north around England. Some people got off in Ireland but they were killed. Only 54 ships made it back to Spain.
Philip shut himself in the Escorial after the defeat of the Armada. What changes resulted in naval warfare and Spanish welfare?
People didn't grapple and board, they started cannonading other ships. The Spanish were more willing to have peace with the Dutch and they allowed Henry IV to become king of France. North America was open to the English, and Protestantism became stronger.
Henry of Valois was married to Catherine de Medici. He died of __________. His son __________ married Mary Stuart. He died, so _______ became king at ten years. His mom was the regent and they caused the _____________.
- a hunting accident
- Francis II
- Charles (doesn't deserve a number)
- St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre
Explain the St. Bartholemew's day massacre.
It was on the day of Charles' sister's (Catherine's daughter) wedding. Catherine was upset that the Huguenots were so powerful and they were all in town for Henry King of Navarre's marriage so she attacked and killed people, such as the Duke of Coligni.
When Charles died, who succeeded him?
What war did he fight and how did he fight it?
- Henry III of Valois
- War of Three Henrys (Henry III, Henry of Navarre, and Henry of Guise [Catholic son of Mary Stuart]). Henry III was tryna balance things out between these two religiously diverse guys and because he had no kids, he had Henry of Guise killed and named Henry of Navarre his successor (Henry Bourbon/Henry IV)
Catholics in France didn't accept Henry IV. What did he do?
He laid siege to Paris in 1590 but was thwarted by the Duke of Parma. When Parma died, he sieged it again. Eventually he converted and forgave the people who opposed him (granting them amnesty). He only ruled effectively from 1594-1610.
What caused the 30 years war?
- The Peace of Augsburg was dumb and didn't recognize many new religions
- The Catholics thought there were more German Protestant states than Catholic ones
- German rulers wanted their own groups
- They formed the Protestant Union (England, Dutch Netherlands, France) and the Catholic League (Spain, HRE)
Give the dates of the 30 Years War?
In 1617, who became king of Bohemia?
His people tried to get rid of him three years later for what reason?
- Ferdinand of Styria
- He made Protestants worship in the Catholic way. Jan Huss was from Bohemia and the Letter of Magesty allowed total freedom of religion.
Explain the Defenestration of Prague.
Ferdinand of Styria sent some delegates to a castle in Bohemia to negotiate some terms about religion. The people there got so mad that they threw these ambassadors out the window into a pile of poop.
Explain the deal with Ferdinand of Styria and Holy Roman Emperor.
The king of Bohemia had a seat as an elector (elector of the Palatine). Ferdinand went and got elected as he was declared to be not king. He got to be Holy Roman Emperor because the electors didn't know.
Explain the battle at White Mountain.
Frederick had become the king while Ferdinand was gone. These two fought here and Frederick lost his position as king.
In the Denmark Phase: Ferdinand hired _______ to creat and lead an army. __________ was the Danish king who was concerned about Ferdinand's general gettin' all up in his territory. The two went to war and _______ lost to the _____________. At the same time, Wallenstein went on to defeat __________.
- Christian IV
- Christian IV
- Catholic League under General Tilly
- The Protestant Union
After being defeated, Christian IV signed what treaty? What did it say?
- Peace of Lubeck
- He kept his territory but had no right to anything else.
How did Ferdinand try to get back lost territory?
What happened when he met with the German electors to secure his son a spot as HRE?
- He issued the Edict of Restitution that gave Catholics their territory back.
- The electers would only do it if Wallenstein got kicked out because Richelieu (of France) sent a "spy" to Germany to convince the electors that Wallenstein should be gone. Frederick took the deal.
____________, the Swedish king, wanted mroe power for Sweden (namely control of the Baltic). He also wanted to lead a confederate of Protestant princes in central Europe. _________ paid him to fight and he defeated Tilly and the Catholic League at _______.
- Gustavus Adolphus
Wallenstein, being called back by Ferdinand, was defeated by Adolphus where?
What happened to the Swedish in the battle?
- Adolphus was killed, and they kept fighting with Oxenstierna.
- Wallenstein was assasinated by Ferdinand
What was the result of the Treaty of Prague?
It put HRE and the princes of Germany agains the Swedes who lost in Nordlingen.
Why did the French enter the 30 years war?
Where did the French defeat the Hapsburgs?
- They wanted to defeat the Hapsburgs.
- Rocroy in 1643
What was the Treaty of Westphalia for?
What did it say?
- The Germans got mad at people walkin' through their territories.
- Each German state was soverign and independent from Switzerland (United Provinces). France got Alsace, Metz, Atul, and Verdun. Sweden gets western Pomeriana and Brandenburg tets eastern Pomerania. The Calvinists got equality.
France in Spain didn't sign a treaty until 1659. When was the Treaty of Westphalia?