COM 301 Midterm

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  1. 6 Characteristics of Rhetorical Discourse
    • 1. Planned
    • 2. Adapted
    • 3. Reveals our motive
    • 4. Responsive
    • 5. Seeks to persuade
    • 6. Concerned with contingent issues (matters that confront everyone which don't have a definite or unavoidable answer)
  2. Requirments of Lloyd Bitzer and the Rhetorical Situation- associated with rhetoric being responsive (crafted in response to a set of circumstances)
    • exigence (problem);
    • audience;
    • constraints (limits to what can and cannot be said)
  3. Vatz's view of how rhetoric is created...
    • Rhetoric constructs a situation
    • rhetoric inviting
    • ex. persuading a friend to buy expensive concert tickets
  4. Bitzer's view of how rhetoric is created...
    • the situation constructs rhetoric
    • rhetoric making
    • ex. debate in medical ethics regarding assisted suicide
  5. When and where did rhetoric begin?
    • 467 B.C.
    • Greece
  6. Characteristics of Philosophers
    believed in absolute truths
  7. Characteristics of Sophists
    what we know is what we perceive/interpret
  8. What was the heart of Greek education?
    Rhetoric- ability to argue case and refute was crucial
  9. Definition of ARETE
    virute; excellence; managing own affairs well
  10. Definition of DIALECTIC
    the method of investigating philosophical issues by the give and take of argument; a method of teaching that involved training students to argue either side of a case; argument back and forth, both sides of a proposition
  11. Definition of DISSOI LOGOI
    • contradictory arguments;
    • the idea that strong arguments could be produced for or against any claim
  12. Definition of KAIROS
    truth depends on a careful consideration of all factors surrounding an event, including time, opportunity, and circumstance.
  13. Objection to Sophists
    • They talked for $
    • These people were outsiders/foreigners
    • Cultural relativism- truth is only true relative to culture
    • Sophists replaced divine truth w/truth by argumentation
    • Law by social agreement (nomos) instead of thesmos which is law derived from authority of kings or natural law
  14. Beliefs by Sophist, GORGIAS
    • there was no truth, even if there was, we could not grasp it
    • best known for: language use and style--how you phrase is powerful
  15. Beliefs by Sophist, PROTAGORAS
    • 1st of the Sophists
    • "Man is the Measure of All Things"
    • Father of debate
    • first to systematize eristic argument- argumentative tricks that ignore true meaning (dianoia) in order to ensure rhetorical victory
  16. Beliefs by Sophist, CORAX
    • organization, structure
    • intro-narration-argumentation-peroration (conclusion)
  17. Beliefs by Sophist, ISOCRATES
    • "Old Man Eloquent"
    • Master teacher
    • critical of earlier sophists
    • concern for preparing greek leaders to make wise and effective political judgments; aimed at improving political practices of Athens
    • what set him apart?- concern for ethos (moral character)
  18. beliefs by Sophist, THRASYMACHUS
    dramatic delivery; about personal power
  19. Beliefs by Sophist, ASPASIA
    • female rhetorician
    • socrates teacher
    • invented socratic method
  20. Plato's philosophy and beliefs
    • royalty in his blood
    • disenchanted with democracy
    • buys garden of Academus since 387 b.c.
    • an absolutist, reject cultural relativism
    • believed philosopher kings should be ruling party bc only ones intelligent and enlighted enough to understand the ideals
    • rhetoricians not knowledgable about justice, just skilled in creating beliefs about justice (misleading)
  21. Aristotle's 3 charges
    • 1.impiety- speaking against gods
    • 2. corrupting the youth- band from teaching
    • 3. ignoring the band from teaching
  22. Plato's main point in Gorgias, his philosophy on sophists
    the rhetoric practiced by sophists does not embody an adequate conception of justice thus dangerously deceptive activity for individual and the state;

    aim to persuade thru manipulation of public instead of based on true knowledge and well being of city
  23. Plato's theory of forms
    nomenal (real, ideal world) not the one we live in vs. world of appearances

    ideals are realized and understood thru socratic dialogue; perfect in the mind, imperfect in physical form

    plato wants to help develop souls so we can return to ideals
  24. Plato's 2 types of arts
    techne (true art- medicine, justice)--4 true arts of health, 2 for body and 2 for soul

    sham (joke, not real art, cosmetics, rhetoric)

    rhetoric like knack of cookery (imitation of art of medicine, restoration of soul instead of justice)
  25. Richard Weaver's beliefs
    rhetorician; idealism similar to Plato

    "language is sermonic"

    noble vs. ignoble (search truth b4 speaking vs. not seeking truth b4 speaking)

    language, rhetoric can improve society if we understand values before we speak--dialectic before rhetoric--goal of dialectic is greater understanding of big truth
  26. Richard Weaver's lowest form of argument
    argument from circumstance- forget principle, circumstance dictates what is said next; argument grounded in situation
  27. Richard Weaver's highest form of argument
    argument from definition; argument that is rooted in principle
  28. Plato's central concerns in Gorgias
    rhetor's relationship to audience; audience ends up in control of rhetor; truth for plato exists independently of audiences; too dangerous to make truth a matter of audience agreement
  29. Plato's main points in Phaedrus: Rhetoric A True Art?
    • true rhetorician must be a philosopher;
    • true art of persuasive speech would aim to bring order to society through a thorough study of the human soul, diff types of ppl, and pwr of words.

    • rhetoric an art of influencing the soul through words; art of leading soul toward truth thru words and arguments
    • connection btw. love&rhetoric
  30. Goal of Rhetoric for Plato
    to establish order in individual and city state- this occurs when wisdom-loving part of soul persuades the other two parts (lover of nobility and lust) to submit to control; produce harmony and justice in soul and state
  31. Aristotle's beliefs
    • Plato and Sophists-extreme; he takes middle ground
    • thinks human are primarily rational individuals
    • loves to categorize things
    • rhetoric is conterpart of dialect- dialectic needs to precede rhetoric- examine both ends of every issue then rhetoric presents what you've discovered
  32. Aristotle's definition of rhetoric
    rhetoric is the ability to see in any situation, the available means of persuasion--a way of formatting a message to reach distinct audiences (knowing when to use what)
  33. 4 reasons why aristotle found rhetoric useful
    • true/just ideas do not always prevail, rhetoric advocate for it
    • sometimes facts arent enough to persuade audience
    • need to know both sides of an issue, so u can at least refute the other side
    • have an understanding of rhetoric for the of intellectual self defense
  34. Aristotle's 3 kinds of rhetoric
    • Deliberative
    • used in assemblies; political, law; liked most bc of potential to help large amount of ppl; inductive in nature (reasoning specific to general)
    • Epideictic
    • ceremonial; elements- tone of humility, speech of praise/blame, commending/commemorating someone; a good inaugural
    • Forensic
    • rhetoric of the courtroom; deductive; syllogism main tool;
    • enthymeme- special kind of syllogism leaves audience to fill in the blank; conclusion not specifically stated
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COM 301 Midterm
2011-10-05 07:56:11

Fall 2011 Midterm- Rhetoric study guide
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