Card Set Information
This is the Bio part of science 80 at Okanagan College in Vernon B.C Canada
All living cells come from
other living cells
How often do organisms produce new cells ?
why must cells be replaced ?
they get wornout, old or damaged.
The kingdom monera produce new cells by ?
Define binary fission
A form of reproduction for singled celled organisms
What do chromosomes do ?
Chromosomes carry the hereditary information from one cell generation to the next.
What is replication ?
The duplication of genetic material before cell division.
The two new cells formed by binary fission are called ?
In organisms other than monerans, chromosomes are shaped how ?
How does replication insure that each daughter cell receives a copy af the genetic material
After chromosome replication, the copies move to seperate ends of the cell and the cell pinches in the middle forming two new cells.
How often does bacteria reproduce through binary fission ?
Every 20 minutes
How many chromosomes in a moneran
One chromosome and no true nucleus
Why is cell division in multicellular organisms more complex ?
Because plants and animals have more parts and more chromosomes than monerans.
After replication of the chromosomes in the neucleus, the nucleus devides through a process called ?
Cell division in multicellular organisms.
Or, the process that results in the formation of two daughter cells that are the exact copy of the original cell
Before cell division in multicellular organisms, all chromosomes within the nucleus must ?
Name the two types of cells in a living organism.
Body cells and gametes
A cell that is only involved in reproduction
What are the two gametes ?
In males - sperm
In females egg cell
Name the four fases of Mmitosis
What happens durring prophase ?
Chromosomes become shorter and thicker and the nuclear envelope disapears
What happens durring metaphase ?
The doubled chromosomes cluster at the center of the cell
What happens durring anaphase ?
The doubled chromosomes split in two seperata chromosomes and move to oposite ends of the cell and the cell starts to devide
What happens durring telephase ?
A new nuclear envelope forms around each of the two sets of chromosomes. The cytoplasm devides and daughter cells are formed.
What is cytoplasm ?
Region between the nuclear envelope and the cell membrane
Meosis is a type of cell devision that takes place in reproductive cells. Its purpose is to produce gametes.
Reproduction of living organisms is called
Define sexual reproduction
The process by which two gametes fuse or join together to produce one cell that developes into a new indevidual.
Why is it important for organisms to continuasly produce cells ?
Because they get old. warn out, damaged or die
Why must there be two cell divisions in meosis ?
To reduce the mount of chromosomes
Name the Australian monk who observed pea plants
genes cary traight that are passed from one generation to the next. they are located on the chromosomes that replicate and seperatate durring mitosis and meiosis
Genes are always paired except when ?
In gametes (cells involved in reproduction)
Explain the diference between dominent and resesive
Dominant is expressed
Resesive is hidden
Explain the diference between genotype and phenotype
Genotype = the genes on an individuals chromosomes eg; Gg Tt ( actual genes )
capitals for dominant genes and lower case for resesive
Phenotype = what an individual looks like because of that gene ( tall, short, yellow, green )
Each chromosome is made up of ?
what does DNA stand for ?
who discovered the structure of DNA ?
Watson and Crick
How many molecules of DNA are found in a chromosome ?
each human cell has ______ pairs of chromosomes
each person has ____ sex chromosomes
Besides the 2 sex chromosomes found in the human, what are the othere 22 pairs called
Why are sex linked charactoristics more likely to show up in a male than a female ?
Because males only have 1 x chromosome and women have 2 x chromosomes, thus have a better chance to carry a dominant gene on one x chromosome.
What is a carrier ?
A person who has a resesive gene but does not show the trait.
A change in chromosome structure or in a gene is called ?
What is trisomy ?
What is albinism ?
No colour pigment
Biologists who use the DNA molecule to cause changes in organisms are called ?
What is polyploidy ?
It results when a plant is exposed to a chemical that interferes with the normal chromosome activity durring meiosis. resulting gametes have more chromosomes than they would normaly have.
What is recombinant DNA ?
DNA that is made up DNA from more than one cell or organism.