Science 80

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Author:
AndyRochon
ID:
106118
Filename:
Science 80
Updated:
2011-10-03 19:39:40
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Bio
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This is the Bio part of science 80 at Okanagan College in Vernon B.C Canada
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  1. All living cells come from
    other living cells
  2. How often do organisms produce new cells ?
    continuously
  3. why must cells be replaced ?
    they get wornout, old or damaged.
  4. The kingdom monera produce new cells by ?
    binary fission
  5. Define binary fission
    A form of reproduction for singled celled organisms
  6. What do chromosomes do ?
    Chromosomes carry the hereditary information from one cell generation to the next.
  7. What is replication ?
    The duplication of genetic material before cell division.
  8. The two new cells formed by binary fission are called ?
    Daughter cells
  9. In organisms other than monerans, chromosomes are shaped how ?
    Rod shaped
  10. How does replication insure that each daughter cell receives a copy af the genetic material
    After chromosome replication, the copies move to seperate ends of the cell and the cell pinches in the middle forming two new cells.
  11. How often does bacteria reproduce through binary fission ?
    Every 20 minutes
  12. How many chromosomes in a moneran
    One chromosome and no true nucleus
  13. Why is cell division in multicellular organisms more complex ?
    Because plants and animals have more parts and more chromosomes than monerans.
  14. After replication of the chromosomes in the neucleus, the nucleus devides through a process called ?
    Mitosis
  15. Define mitosis
    Cell division in multicellular organisms.

    Or, the process that results in the formation of two daughter cells that are the exact copy of the original cell
  16. Before cell division in multicellular organisms, all chromosomes within the nucleus must ?
    Replicate
  17. Name the two types of cells in a living organism.
    Body cells and gametes
  18. Define gametes
    A cell that is only involved in reproduction
  19. What are the two gametes ?
    • In males - sperm
    • In females egg cell
  20. Name the four fases of Mmitosis
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telaphase
  21. What happens durring prophase ?
    Chromosomes become shorter and thicker and the nuclear envelope disapears
  22. What happens durring metaphase ?
    The doubled chromosomes cluster at the center of the cell
  23. What happens durring anaphase ?
    The doubled chromosomes split in two seperata chromosomes and move to oposite ends of the cell and the cell starts to devide
  24. What happens durring telephase ?
    A new nuclear envelope forms around each of the two sets of chromosomes. The cytoplasm devides and daughter cells are formed.
  25. What is cytoplasm ?
    Region between the nuclear envelope and the cell membrane
  26. Define meosis
    Meosis is a type of cell devision that takes place in reproductive cells. Its purpose is to produce gametes.
  27. Reproduction of living organisms is called
    Sexual reproduction
  28. Define sexual reproduction
    The process by which two gametes fuse or join together to produce one cell that developes into a new indevidual.
  29. Why is it important for organisms to continuasly produce cells ?
    Because they get old. warn out, damaged or die
  30. Why must there be two cell divisions in meosis ?
    To reduce the mount of chromosomes
  31. Name the Australian monk who observed pea plants
    Gregor Mendel
  32. Define genes
    genes cary traight that are passed from one generation to the next. they are located on the chromosomes that replicate and seperatate durring mitosis and meiosis
  33. Genes are always paired except when ?
    In gametes (cells involved in reproduction)
  34. Explain the diference between dominent and resesive
    • Dominant is expressed
    • Resesive is hidden
  35. Explain the diference between genotype and phenotype
    • Genotype = the genes on an individuals chromosomes eg; Gg Tt ( actual genes )
    • capitals for dominant genes and lower case for resesive

    Phenotype = what an individual looks like because of that gene ( tall, short, yellow, green )
  36. Each chromosome is made up of ?
    DNA
  37. what does DNA stand for ?
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  38. who discovered the structure of DNA ?
    Watson and Crick
  39. How many molecules of DNA are found in a chromosome ?
    One
  40. each human cell has ______ pairs of chromosomes
    23
  41. each person has ____ sex chromosomes
    2
  42. Besides the 2 sex chromosomes found in the human, what are the othere 22 pairs called
    Autosomes
  43. Why are sex linked charactoristics more likely to show up in a male than a female ?
    Because males only have 1 x chromosome and women have 2 x chromosomes, thus have a better chance to carry a dominant gene on one x chromosome.
  44. What is a carrier ?
    A person who has a resesive gene but does not show the trait.
  45. A change in chromosome structure or in a gene is called ?
    Mutation
  46. What is trisomy ?
    Down syndrome
  47. What is albinism ?
    No colour pigment
  48. Biologists who use the DNA molecule to cause changes in organisms are called ?
    Genetic Engineers
  49. What is polyploidy ?
    It results when a plant is exposed to a chemical that interferes with the normal chromosome activity durring meiosis. resulting gametes have more chromosomes than they would normaly have.
  50. What is recombinant DNA ?
    DNA that is made up DNA from more than one cell or organism.

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