BIOTEC E2 C5

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BIOTEC E2 C5
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  1. DEFINE NATURAL IMMUNITY
    A RAPID WAY FOR AN ORGANISM TO FIGHT OFF MICROORGANIAMS IN A GERNERAL WAY BEFORE THE SPECIFIC MECHANISMS OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY ARE ACTIVED.
  2. NAME THE 3 UNITS OF NATURAL IMMUNITY.
    (THINK UMBRELLA)
  3. NAME THE 2 TYPES OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY.
    • CELL & Ab MEDIATED.
  4. Enzymes can be isolated from
    microbes used for the following:
    NAME 3
    Production of foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and synthesis of industrial products

    High fructose corn syrup from corn starch

    Recombinant technology allows for mass production of commercial product
  5. -------are small metabolites
    with anti-microbial activity
    Antibiotics
  6. Antibiotics are small metabolites
    with anti-microbial activity aturally
    produced ----- &------ AND -----.
    by Gram- & Gram+ bacteria and some fungi
  7. DEFINE ANTIBIOTICS
    • Antibiotics are small metabolites
    • with anti-microbial activity

    Naturally produced by Gram- & Gram+ bacteria and some fungi
  8. NAME 3 WASY ANTIBIOTICS WORK
    Disrupting the plasma membrane of cells

    Inhibiting cell wall synthesis

    • Inhibiting synthesis of important metabolites
    • (Proteins, nucleic acids or folic acid)
  9. --------------- family yields new antibiotics by moving cloned genes into organisms already
    making similar antibiotics
    Isochromanequinone
  10. Isochromanequinone family NAME 2
    Streptomycetes sp. or Penicillium
  11. DEFINE cephalosporin production
    • Isochromanequinone family
    • (Streptomycetes sp. or Penicillium)

    • feed unusual substrates to microbes with pathways from other microbes may yield
    • novel antibiotics.
  12. T OR F?
    Methane may be a renewable source of clean energy in the future.
    Produced anaerobically by bacteria in swamps and landfills and can be captured
    TRUE
  13. DESCRIBE CLOSTRIDIUM SCRUBBING ACTIONS.
    • Scrubbing removes the undesirable compounds so left with CH4> CO2 + H2O
    • (Clostridium)
  14. WHY IS H+ THE BEST FUEL ALTERNATIVE?
    Hydrogen offers the best alternative

    Water and energy are the only bye-products

    Bacterial and algal hydrogenase produces H2 gas

    Bacterial fermentation would cut cost and time
  15. NAME 3 BIOPOLYMERS
    • Polyethylene,
    • polypropylene,
    • polystyrene,
    • PVC are commonly used and are petroleum products
  16. WHAT ARE PHA & PHB?
    • BIOPOLYMERS
    • Poly B-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and derivitive Poly B-hydroxybutyrate (PHB).
  17. WHAT ARE SOME USEAGE FOR PHA & PHB?
    • Carrier for fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides.
    • In surgery as sutures, pins and staples
    • Artificial blood vessels
    • Bone replacements
    • Capsules for pharmaceuticals
  18. DEFINE Biodegradation
    Natural process whereby bacteria and fungi break down hydrocarbons > CO2 + H2O

    Also get partial oxidation products
  19. T OR F?
    Hydrocarbons are abundant
    pollutants.
    TRUE
  20. NAME Organisms
    that can degrade hydrocarbons.
    • Bacteria,
    • yeast, micro-algae, cyanobacteria,
    • filamentous fungi-each breaking specific bonds in ring structures
  21. GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF BIODEGRADATION
    Natural= phytoplankton and oil seepage
  22. DEFINE Bioremediation
    • The process of reclaiming contaminated sites
    • Use microorganisms abilities to clean-up manmade recalcitrant compounds
  23. NAME SOME VOLATILE/SEMI-VOLATILE PRODUCTS THAT CLEAND IN BIOREMEDIATION.
    • Volatile= benzene, PCBs, PBBs, PAH
    • Semi-volatile= phenol, naphthalene, PCPs
  24. Oil is a complex mix of
    ---------.
    hydrocarbons
  25. Distilled petro products include....NAME 4
    gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and heating oils
  26. IN 1989 WHAT WAS THE DAILY OIL CONSUMPTION?
    trillion gallons/day
  27. T OR F?
    Typical tanker accident dumps 100 million gallons of crude oil in the ocean/yr.
    Usually only account for less than 10% of spills (Rest; refinery and small storage
    tank)
    TRUE
  28. ------- are responsible for much of the evaporated and dissolved molecules
    Microbes
  29. IN BIODEGRADATION
    other non-dissolved or non-volatile
    molecules could take centuries to degrade
    WHY?
    • no access for enzymes or no other
    • nutrients available.
  30. Microbes must be given the optimal
    conditions to degrade these hydrocarbons effectively
    NAME THEM AND RATIOS
    • C:N:P
    • 100:10:1
  31. Best known application of bioremediation technology
    • Aerobic microbial oxidation of
    • domestic sewage and industrial waste
  32. Two common in situ
    methods are ------- & -------.
    pumping contaminated water over surface or, water percolation through contaminated soil
  33. WHAT IS Effective for treating urban runoff, industrial effluents, landfill leachate, coal pile seepage,
    agricultural wastes and all other wastewater
    Artificially constructed wetlands
  34. Best known application of bioremediation technology
    FOR SOILS IS TREATED WHICH 2 WAYS?
    Soils could be treated ex situ or in situ
  35. T OR F?
    WASTEWATER TREATMENT
    is carefully controlled environment containing nutrients for microbial growth
    true
  36. T OR F?
    In Artificially constructed wetlands
    waste treatment ponds or lagoons are also used.
    Are genetically engineered microbes needed to degrade the most resistant waste.
    TRUE
  37. Microbes discovered to have the ability to degrade compounds
    1960
  38. 1960s; microbes discovered to have
    the ability to degrade compounds:.
    NAME 3
    Pesticides, herbicides, organics
  39. Stains of ---------
    are known to degrade 100 + organic compounds
    Pseudomonas
  40. Halogenated aromatic rings are common
    NAME 3 ITEMS.
    • Dry cleaning solvent carbon tetrachloride
    • PCBs, insulating electrical equipment
    • Many chlorinated compounds are natural
  41. WHAT CHEMICAL STRUCTUE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMICAL DEGRADATION?
    NAME 2 GENERAL TYPES
    • Halogenated aromatic rings are common
    • Dry cleaning solvent carbon tetrachloride
    • PCBs, insulating electrical equipment
    • Many chlorinated compounds are natural

    • Non-halogenated aromatic compounds
    • Called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    • Composed of two or more benzene rings in any arrangement (linear, angled, cluster)
  42. DEFINE DEHALOGENATION
    Removing Cl, Br, I to detoxify a substance via deoxygenase.

    Replaces halogen with hydroxyl group
  43. T OR F?
    Enzymes that dehalogenate
    will convert polycyclics
    to catechol or protocatechuate
    • TRUE.
    • These end up as acetyl-CoA or succinate, or pyruvate and acetaldehyde
  44. T OR F?
    Degradative pathways are often plasmid encoded
    TRUE
  45. Tol plasmid degrades ------ & -------.
    toluene and xylene
  46. pJP3 plasmid degrades ------.
    2,4-D
  47. HOW DOES ONE CONSTRUCT A SUPERBUG?
    Conjugation is the normal mode + homologous recombination (superbugs)
  48. The first engineered bacteria with degradative ability was made in the ------
    1970'S
  49. ------------ tranferred plasmids for petroleum degradation into host bacterial strain
    Chakrabarty
  50. Chakrabarty tranferred plasmids for petroleum degradation into host bacterial strain
    WHAT RESULTED ?
    • Fusion plasmid for octane and
    • camphor resulted, this work leading to patent
    • for oil eating bug (never used to clean up spills
  51. Heavy metals are toxic at low levels
    NAME THEM
    As, Cd, Pb, Co and Hg disrupt metabolic reactions, bind DNA, increase mutations
  52. THESE METALS ARE used as prosthetic groups (metabolism)
    Trace amounts of Mg, Mn, Cu, Se
  53. NAME 4 SOURCES OF HEAVY METAL TOXINS
    Sources include smelters, power plants, waste incinerators and traffic
  54. Transformation of metal wastes by
    microbes...NAME 2 ITEMS
    • Plasmid encoded resistance (transporters),
    • chelation, transformation to nontoxic form

    Recombinant forms are being studied for their effectiveness against metal-compounds
  55. WHAT DOES MEOR STAND FOR ?
    • Microbial enhanced oil recovery.
    • Involves injection of bacteria into oil reserves, along with nutrients for growth and
    • colonization
  56. ------ producing microbes break up surface tension of oil allowing flow.
    Acetone. THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF INDIGENOUS MICROBES BEING STIMULATED.
  57. Indigenous microbes can also be stimulated by injection of proper nutrients...NAME 2 PRODUCTS PRODUCED BY THIS METHOD
    Microbial products like ECP and biosurfactants
  58. Microbial products like ECP and biosurfactants...FROM WHAT AND HOW USED?
    from fermenters can also be used to aid in recovery of oil.
  59. Microbial products like ECP and biosurfactants from fermenters...WHAT DOES IT DO TO OIL?
    These increase oil viscosity or block pores so oil is more accessible.
  60. NAME 2 PROBLEMS WHEN UTILIZING INDIGENOUS MICROBES STIMULATED BY INJECTION.
    • Problems include:
    • 1. Souring of oil by anaerobic microbes (increasing the sulfide content).

    2. Aerobes will degrade the oil with heavy loss of aromatic and heterocyclic components.
  61. Microbial oxidation processes convert insoluble metal compounds in ores to soluble extractable compounds
    ...NAME THE LITTLE CHAP THAT DOES THIS.
    Thiobacillus ferroxidans live in acid, assists in copper and uranium extractions
  62. Bacteria and fungi are valuable due to the ------ charge of their cell wall
    negative.
  63. Bacteria and fungi are valuable due to the negative charge of their cell wall...HOW ARE Polysaccharides HELPFUL IN THIS PROCESS?
    Polysaccharides trap cationic metals
  64. Valuable metals are recovered from hazardous industrial wastes by adsorption via bacteria.
    NAME THE WHO AND WHAT FROM THE NOTES.
    Thiobacillus ferroxidans live in acid, assists in copper and uranium extractions. Also accumulates metals like cobalt and zinc inside the cell.
  65. Four types of microbes used in recovery...NAME THEM
    • 1.Heterotrophic microbes
    • 2.Mesophiles that live at 20-40C
    • EX:Thiobacillus and Leptospirillum
    • 3.Moderate thermophiles 40-55C
    • EX:Sulfobacillus
    • 4.Extreme thermophiles greater 55C
    • EX:Solfolobus, and Metallosphaera
  66. Metal Recovery Microbes..WHAT AND WHO LIVES AT 20-40C?
    • Mesophiles that live at 20-40C
    • Thiobacillus and Leptospirillum
  67. Thiobacillus and Leptospirillum...WHAT TEMP DO THEY LIKE?
    20-40C
  68. NAME the Moderate thermophile that reside in temps at 40-55C
    Sulfobacillus
  69. Sulfobacillus...what temp do they like
    Moderate thermophiles 40-55C
  70. Extreme thermophiles like greater than 55C....NAME 2 OF THEM
    Solfolobus, and Metallosphaera
  71. Solfolobus, and Metallosphaera...WHAT TEMP DO THEY LIKE?
    • Extreme thermophiles
    • like greater than 55C
  72. THE Four types of microbes used in recovery...ONE DOES NOT HAVE A TEMPERATURE RANGE. NAME IT.
    Heterotrophic microbes
  73. Chemoautotrophic bacteria obtain energy by
    oxidizing minerals and use CO2
  74. Chemoautotrophic bacteria obtain energy by oxidizing minerals and use CO2..NAME THE ELEMENTS THEY UTILIZE.
    Sulfur, iron, hydrogen, and nitrifying bacteria
  75. Mesophiles that live at -------.
    Thiobacillus and Leptospirillum
    20-40C
  76. Moderate thermophiles -----.
    Sulfobacillus
    40-55C
  77. Extreme thermophiles
    like greater than ------.
    Solfolobus, and Metallosphaera
    55C
  78. DEFINE Microbial Cell-Surface Display.
    New technology in which foreign proteins are displayed on the surface of microbial or yeast cells by anchoring them to cell-surface proteins.
  79. Microbial Cell-Surface Display:
    The protein to be displayed is called the ---- ----- and the anchoring protein is called the ------ ------.
    • passenger protein
    • carrier protein
  80. Signal-sensitive receptors or components for diagnostic applications in medicine or to monitor substances in the environment....WHAT METHOD?
    Microbial Cell-Surface Display
  81. Bioadsorbents to remove hazardous chemicals and heavy metals.
    Bioconversions using whole-cell biocatalysts with anchored, immobilized enzymes. WHAT METHOD?
    Microbial Cell-Surface Display
  82. Live vaccine development by exposing antigens on weakened bacteria.
    Antibody production by expressing surface antigens to the immune system. WHAT METHOD?
    Microbial Cell-Surface Display
  83. WHAT THE HELL IS THIS?
    MICROBIAL CELL-SURFACE DISPLAY AND APPLICATIONS.
  84. Microorganisms are used industrially to produce a variety of products. JUST FOR SHITS N JIGGLES, NAME 4.
    • 1. Important chemicals
    • 2. Antibiotics
    • 3. Organic compounds
    • 4. Pharmaceuticals
  85. DEFINE Fermentation
    • An anaerobic process that generates energy by breakdown of organic compounds with various end products:
    • Lactic acid, enzymes, alcohols (ethanol, butanol), and acetone to name a few
  86. NAME THE END PRODUCTS OF FREMENTATION
    • Lactic acid,
    • enzymes,
    • alcohols (ethanol, butanol),
    • acetone.
  87. Industrial fermentation has a broad definition that includes the following:
    NAME 2
    • 1. Any aerobic process that produces biomass
    • 2. Biotransformation of a compound, added to the fermentation medium, to a valuable compound
  88. Bioreactors are used for reactions and require several steps for processing..NAME 5
    • 1.Sterilization of equipment and medium
    • 2.Preparation of inoculum
    • 3.Cell growth and product synthesis
    • 4.Product extraction and/or cell recovery
    • 5.Disposal of medium/cells and cleaning
  89. For rapid microbial growth cells need:
    NAME 4 ITEMS
    • 1. Consistent pH and oxygen supply
    • 2. Antifoaming agents
    • 3. Temperature control
    • 4. Supply of nutrients
    • "CATS"
  90. NAME 2 TYPES OF FERMENTERS
    • Stirred tank reactor
    • -Relies on agitation to circulate oxygen
    • Air lift fermenter
    • -Supplies air through a valve at the bottom.
    • -Creates high pressure that circulates the tank.
  91. T OR F?
    Ultrasound (sonication) is being examined to possibly increase production of cells within a bioreactor.
    TRUE
  92. FREMENTER PRODUCTS ARE COLLECTED 3 WAYS..NAME THEM.
    1. Continuous fermentation (Chemostat)

    • 2. Batch culturing
    • (collected post termination)

    3. Single cell protein (SCP)
  93. T OR F?
    Microbes modify a compound to a structurally related compound.Products may not have value to the cell, but are still metabolized (useful to us).
    TRUE
  94. Synthesis of steroids RESULTS IN WHAT DRUG?
    prednisone.

    Anti-inflammatory drug Poison ivy and auto-immune diseases
  95. L-phenylalanine from --- -----, its a
    Multistep bioconversion microbial process
    phenypyruvic acid
  96. Ascorbic acid from------.
    • glucose.
    • -Microbes currently only supply one step out of many (may supply all in future)
  97. T or F?
    Ascorbic acid comes from glucose.
    We use recombinant technology to give microbes the enzymes and cofactors they need for reactions.
    TRUE
  98. WHERE IS THE SPARGER ON A STIRRED TANK REACTOR?
    • BOTTOM OF THE TANK.
  99. DEFINE Solid Substrate Fermentation.
    • Use of immobilized cells for product.
    • Cells chemically cross-linked to agar.
  100. WHATS 2 PROBLEMS WITH Solid Substrate Fermentation?
    Problems include side reactions and reduction of catalytic activity by matrix
  101. Ice-minus bacteria keep produce from freezing until they reach ------.
    -6 to -8C
  102. WHO IS THE Ice-minus bacteria in frost sensitive plants?
    • P. syringae.
    • Deleted ice-nucleation gene.
  103. -----strains of P. syringae are patented for use today that decrease the frost causing wild-types.
    3
  104. WHATS THE METHOD THAT MODS P.SYRINGAE?
  105. Microbial Pesicides...NAME 2
  106. 1. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) forms endospores within the sporangium with parasporal crystaline inclusions that kill insect larva.
    2. Baculovirus are invertebrate-specific DNA viral pathogens that infect and kill larva
  107. ----------------forms endospores within the sporangium with parasporal crystaline inclusions that kill insect larva
    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
  108. --------are invertebrate-specific DNA viral pathogens that infect and kill larva
    Baculovirus
  109. Two types of metabolites are synthesized by microbial cells. NAME THEM.
    1.Primary metabolites. Made during cells growth cycle (essential to cell). Intermediary or end products.


    • 2. Secondary metabolites are not essential to cell growth or function
    • -End products of metabolic pathways
    • -May give cells competitive advantage
  110. Two types of metabolites are synthesized by microbial cells. WHICH ONE IS NOT ESSENTIAL TO CELL GROWTH OR FUNCTION?
    Secondary metabolites are not essential to cell growth or function.
  111. Two types of metabolites are synthesized by microbial cells. Which one is made during cells growth cycle (essential to cell)?
    Primary metabolites are made during cells growth cycle (essential to cell).

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