anatomy

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Author:
alannaheeres
ID:
106136
Filename:
anatomy
Updated:
2011-10-03 19:24:49
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joints
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joints
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  1. Point of contact between:
    2 bones or
    cartilage and bone or
    teeth and bones
    Joints
  2. Structural classification based on (2 things)
    • Presence of space between bones
    • Type of connective tissue holding bones together
  3. Joint of cartilage
    Cartilaginous joint
  4. Joint capsule and accessory ligaments
    Synovial joint
  5. Lack a synovial cavity
    Bones held closely together by fibrous connective tissue
    Little or no movement
    Fibrous Joints
  6. Thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull
    Immovable
    Sutures
  7. What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
    • 1. Sutures
    • 2. Syndesmoses
    • 3. Gomphoses
  8. Fibrous joint
    Bones united by ligament
    Slightly movable
    Anterior tibiofibular joint and Interosseous membrane
    Syndesmosis
  9. Teeth in alveolar processes
    Ligament (periodontal) holds cone-shaped peg in bony socket
    Immovable
    Gomphosis
  10. Lacks a synovial cavity
    Allows little or no movement
    Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
    Cartilaginous Joints
  11. What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
    • Synchondroses (hyaline cartilage)
    • Symphyses (fibrocartilage)
  12. Connecting material is hyaline cartilage
    Epiphyseal plate or joints between ribs and sternum
    Immovable
    Synchondrosis
  13. Fibrocartilage is connecting material
    Intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
    Slightly movable
    Symphysis
  14. Synovial cavity separates _________ bones
    articulating
  15. Freely moveable joint
    Synovial joint
  16. What does articular cartilage do? (2)
    • 1. Reduces friction
    • 2. Absorbs shock
  17. What are the two layers of the Articular capsule (2 layers)
    • Outer Fibrous Capsule
    • thickenings in fibrous capsule called ligaments
  18. Inner lining of Articular capsule
    Secretes synovial fluid (slippery)
    Brings nutrients to articular cartilage
    Synovial membrane
  19. Outside joint capsule
    Accessory ligaments
    Extracapsular ligaments
  20. Within capsule
    Acessory ligaments
    Intracapsular ligaments
  21. Attached around edges of capsule
    Allow 2 bones of different shape to fit tightly together
    Increase stability of joint
    Articular disc or menisci
  22. Fluid-filled saclike extensions of the joint capsule
    Reduce friction between moving structures
    -skin rubs over bone
    -tendon rubs over bone
    Bursae
  23. Tubelike bursae that wrap around tendons at wrist and ankle where many tendons come together in a confined spac
    Tendon sheaths
  24. Chronic inflammation of a bursa
    Bursitis
  25. Gliding Movement: Bone surfaces are _____ or slightly ______
    flat; curved
  26. True or false: side to side movement only of joints
    True
  27. What prevents rotation of joints?
    ligaments
  28. Angular Movement: Hinge Joint- Convex surface of one bones fits into ______ surface of 2nd bone
    Concave
  29. Examples of Angular Movement: Hinge Joint
    • 1. Knee
    • 2. Elbow
    • 3. Knee
    • 4. Interphalangeal joints
  30. Decreasing the joint angle
    Flexion
  31. Increasing the joint angle
    Extension
  32. Opening the joint beyond the anatomical position
    Hyperextension
  33. Bone revolves around this
    Its own longitudinal axis
  34. Turning of anterior surface in towards the midline
    Medial rotation
  35. Turning of anterior surface away from the midline
    Lateral rotation
  36. Movement of a distal end of a body part in a circle
    Combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction
    Circumduction
  37. Movement with no change in angle of joint
    Gliding
  38. Increase or decrease in angle between articulating bones (• flexion, extension, hyperextension • adduction, abduction• circumduction is a combination of above movement)
    Angular movements
  39. Bone revolves around its own axis
    Rotation
  40. Uniquely named movements for jaw, hand and foot
    Special movements
  41. Special Movements of mandible:
    1. Upward
    Elevation
  42. Special Movements of mandible:
    Downward
    Depression
  43. Special Movements of mandible:
    Forward
    Protraction
  44. Special Movements of mandible:
    Backward
    Retraction
  45. Name the Special Hand and Food Movements (6)
    • 1. Inversion
    • 2. Eversion
    • 3. Dorsiflexion
    • 4. Plantarflexion
    • 5. Pronation
    • 6. Supination
  46. Articular capsule from glenoid cavity to anatomical neck
    Many nearby bursa
    Rotator cuff (provides support without restricted movement)
    Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint
  47. What are the supporting structures at shoulder? (2)
    • Associated ligaments strengthen joint capsule
    • Tendons of muscle attachments
  48. Head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone
    Ball and socket type of joint
    Bony support restricts movement
    Hip joint
  49. Dense, strong capsule reinforced by ligaments
    One of strongest structures in the bod
    Hip Joint Capsule
  50. Between femur, tibia and patella
    Hinge joint between tibia and femur
    Tibiofemoral (Knee) Joint
  51. Gliding joint between patella and femur
    Flexion, extension, and slight rotation of tibia on femur when knee is flexed
    Tibiofemoral (Knee) Joint
  52. What is the articular capsule of the Tibiofemoral Joint composed of?
    Mostly ligaments and tendons
  53. Lateral and medial menisci of tibiofemoral joint
    Articular discs
  54. Many bursa
    Vulnerable joint
    Knee injuries damage ligaments & tendons since bones do not fit together well
    Tibiofemoral Joint
  55. Patella is part of ______ ___________ anteriorly
    Rest of articular capsule is extracapsular ligaments
    – Fibular and tibial collateral ligaments
    Joint capsule
  56. C-shaped fibrocartilage in knee
    medial meniscus
  57. nearly circular structure in knee
    Lateral meniscus
  58. Autoimmune disorder
    Cartilage attacked
    Inflammation, swelling & pain
    Final step is fusion of joint
    Rheumatoid Arthritis

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