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What is the definition of consciousness?
An organism’s awareness of its own self & surroundings
What is the definition for Alternate States of Consciousness?
Mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc.
What is an example of a high awareness state of consciousness or the Control Process?
Studying for an exam
What is an example of the Automatic Process state of consciousness?
Walking to class while on the phone.
What is an example of the subconsciouss level of awareness?
What is an example of the lowest level of consciousness?
What is a mental activity that requires focused attention?
What is a mental activity requiring minimal attention?
What is a Circadian Rhythm?
Our biological changes that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
The hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and teh pineal gland regulate what changes in our bodies?
Our energy level, mood, learning, and alertness, which all vary throughout the day.
What can cause disrupted circadian rhythms and what are the symptoms?
- Can be caused by shift work, jet lag, and sleep deprivation.
- May cause alterations in mood, concentration, motivation, attention, and motor skills.
What are the main stages of sleep?
Non-Rapid Eye Movement and Rapid Eye Momvement.
- Involves lower frequency brain waves, decreased pulse and breathing, and occasional simple dreams.
- Biologically need NERM sleep before REM.
What is another name for REM sleep?
- Light sleep
- Invovles high frquency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, and large mucsles
- Serves a biological need (eg dreams)
- May play a role in learning and consolidating new memories.
- Brain waves are similar to when you are awake
What are some common tools for sleep research?
EEG, EOG, and EMG
What is the Repair/Restoration theory?
Sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities.
What is the Evolutionary/Circadian Theory?
Sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators.
What is the Psychoanalytic theory?
Dreams are disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties
What is teh Bbiological View Theory?
Dreams are simple by-products of randomn stimulation of brain cells
What is the cognitive view?
Dreams are a type of information processing
What are the 2 major categories of sleep disorder? Explain them.
- Dyssomnias-problems in amount, timing, and quality of sleep.
- Parasomnias-abnormal disturbances during sleep
What are the 3 forms of dyssomnias? Explain them.
- Insomnia-persistant problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early
- Sleep apnea-repeated interruption of breathing during sleep
- Narcolepsy- sudden and irresistable onsets of sleep during normal waking hours.
What are the 2 types of parasomnias? Explain them.
- Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep.
- Night terrors: abrubt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense phsyiological arousal and feelings of panic.
What are psychoactive drugs?
Chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception.
What is drug abuse?
Drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others
What is addiction?
Compulsion to use a specific drug or to engage in a certain activity.
What is a psychological dependnce?
A desire or craving to achieve effecs produced by a drug
What is physical dependence?
Changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimal functioning.
What is an Agonist Drug?
It mimics a neurotransmitter's effect.
What is an antagonist drug?
It blocks normal neurotransmitter functioning.
What are the 4 categories of psychoactive drugs?
What is a depressant?
Acts on the CNS to suppress bodily processes. EG alcohol, valium
What is a stimulant?
Stimulants act on the CNS to increase bodily processes. EG caffeine, nicotine, cocaine
How does cocaine mimic endorphins?
- The brain doesn’t produce endorphins because cocaine acts as an endorphin and brain stops making it.
- This causes pain bc brain stops making endorphins
What are opiates?
They act as an analgesic or pain reliever EG morphine, heroin
What are hallucinogens?
They produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations EG Marijuana and LSD
What is the difference between a delusion and a hallucination?
- A hallucination is when you are seeing things
- A delusion is when you believe something that is untrue.
What is meditation?
A group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC
What is hypnosis?
a trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus
What is hypnosis?
- Used to treat chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy.
- Narrowed, highly focused attention
- Increased use of imagination
- A passive and receptive attitude
- Decreased responsiveness