RDG 370

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  1. An interactive read aloud should do many things. What are a few things read alouds should do?
    • Read alouds help each person in the read aloud to develop a fuller understanding while benefiting from the interpretations of others
    • Read alouds look like a group of people sharing their thinking about a book together
    • As people talk during read alouds their understanding and the way they look at a text deepens and become more analytical
  2. You as the teacher of read alouds do many things. What are a few things you should do?
    • be the "more expert" and guide and shape the conversation
    • help students learn more about the strategic actions readers use
    • offer situations to enhance vocabulary development
  3. 11 actions that happen in intentional conversations
    • Keep in mind the systems of strategic actions that readers must use
    • Know the text thoroughly and understand its demands and the opportunities it provides to promote learning
    • Provide conversational leads to focus students' attention
    • Model and demonstrate behaviors that help students achieve better understanding
    • Ask students to share their thinking in a focused way
    • Prompt students to listen to and respond to one another rather than always being the center of the conversation
    • Keep the conversation grounded in the text
    • Turn the conversation back to students, asking for deeper thinking
    • Require students to be accountable for their comments, asking for more than opinion and asking them to provide evidence from the text or from personal experience
    • Give feedback to students on what they are learning and kinds of thinking they are doing
    • Ask students to evaluate their conversations about the text
  4. T or F
    Teachers should develop a shared language with their students in the context of read alouds.
  5. What are the 11 shared terms in developing language for talking about fiction?
    • Setting
    • Characters
    • Plot
    • Narrator and Perspective
    • Mood
    • Theme
    • Genre
    • Style (use of language)
    • Simile
    • Metaphor
    • Personification
  6. What are the shared terms in developing language for talking about biography?
    • Setting
    • Subject
    • Themes
    • Accuracy of Information
    • Stucture
    • Illustrations, Graphics Freatures
  7. What are the shared terms in developing language for talking about factual texts?
    • Accuracy of Information
    • Style
    • Organization
    • Features
    • Patterns
  8. What are the 8 goals of independent reading?
    • Learn to exercise choice as readers, selecting from a wide variety of texts.
    • Develop favorite books, types of books, genres, topics, writing styles and authors
    • Develop the habit of spending a significan amount of time reading.
    • Build a "reading agenda" that includes books, authors and types of books they want to read in the future.
    • Gain "mileage" as readers by processing a large number of texts on a regular basis.
    • Engage in fluent reading daily (including well-paced silent reading in which they are processing sntactic structures).
    • Learn about themselves as readers.
    • Become part of a community of readers.
  9. T or F
    Classroom libraries are essential.
  10. What are the sections of a Reader's Notebook?
    • Reading Requirements
    • Books to Read
    • Reading List
    • Reading Interests
    • (Can include Letters)
  11. In developing competent readers what matters? (In order)
    • Quantity matters
    • Time matters
    • Variety matters
    • Choice matters
    • Fluency matters
    • Conversation matters
  12. T or F
    Having students write about their independent reading is a powerful way for children to expand their powers of comprehension.
  13. What are the ways of presenting Dialogue in Fiction Texts?
    • Simple dialogue
    • Simple dialogue using pronouns
    • Split dialogue
    • Direct dialogue (first person narrator)
    • Unassigned dialogue
  14. What are the special types of fiction?
    • Mysteries and thrillers
    • Adventure Stories
    • Survival stories
    • Animal Realism
    • Animal Fantasy
    • Sports Stories
    • Formula Fiction and series books
    • Short stories
  15. General demands of all fiction texts
    Readers think within the text to:
    • Gather information about the characters, setting and plot.
    • Gather information across the events of the story.
    • Remember important parts of the story.
  16. General demands of all fiction texts
    Readers think beyond the text to:
    • Understand setting and relate it to characters and events.
    • Understand characters by noticing and interpreting how they are described, how they act, what they say or think, and what others say or think about them.
    • Indetify the imporatnt characters and secondary characters.
    • Identify the conflict or problem of the story.
    • Follow the events of the plot and make predictions as to resolution of the problem.
  17. General demands of all fiction texts
    Readers think about the text to:
    • Evaluate the importance of the setting and the plot.
    • Notice how the writer has made characters seem real.
    • Notice the plot structure and connect it to other texts.
    • Notice the writer's use of language and connect it to other texts.
  18. T or F
    In historical fiction the setting is all important.
  19. Specific demands of Contemporary Realistic Fiction
    Readers think beyond the text to:
    • Understand the characters in the light of current issues and problems.
    • Understand characters from the perspective of the characters' problems, issues and settings
    • Understand different cultures
  20. Specific demands of Contemporary Realistic Fiction
    Readers think about the text to:
    • Take a critical stance toward decisions characters make.
    • Discuss alternative events and endings
    • Notice how the writer has revealed the complexities of characters
    • Critically evaluate the authenticity of the text in the light of current issues
    • Make hypotheses about the writer's perspectives and attitudes
  21. Specific demands of Historical Fiction
    Readers think beyond the text to:
    • Understand archaic language that is authentic to place and time
    • Understand the problem in the light of historical events and problems.
    • Sort out imanginary characters from authentic historical characters
    • Understand characters in the light of the culture, time in history, and physical setting.
  22. Specific demands of Historical Fiction
    Readers think about the text to:
    • Make judgments as to the authenticity of the language and described setting
    • Make hypotheses about why the author has selected the time in history and the setting in order to tell the story
    • Realize how the writer has made historical characters seem real to readers of today.
    • Critically evaluate the text in terms of perspective on historical events.
  23. Specific Demands of Fantasy
    Thinking beyond the text
    • Enter into imaginary worlds
    • Use imagination to understand plots, settings and characters
    • Understand different types of fantasy
    • Recognize the basic human quality of characters in fantasies
    • Make connections between the events and lessons of fantasy and their own lives
  24. Specific Demand of Fantasy
    Thinking about the text
    • Recognize frequently occurring themes and motifs and their relationship to traditional literature
    • Recognize and reflect on the writer's use of symbolism
    • Speculate on the author's goals in writing the fantasy
    • Notice the details the writer used to make the imaginary world seem plausible
  25. Specific Demands of Poetry
    Thinking within the text
    • Gather important information and language
    • Solve unusual or figurative language
    • Use punctuation and text layout
  26. Specific Demands of Poetry
    Thinking beyond the text
    • Infer the deeper meaning of the poem
    • Create sensory images in response to the language
    • Make connections between the ideas in the poem and their own lives
    • Generate feelings and emotions in response to the poem
  27. Specific Demands of Poetry
    Thinking about the text
    • Appreciate aspects of the poem like rhythm and rhyme
    • Notice the poet's use of language to create sensory images
    • Notice how the poet uses language to create emotion
    • Infer the poet's feelings and emotions
  28. T or F
    The talk before and after students read a text does not always include a discussion of the meaning.
  29. Traditional Literature contains:
    • simple stories
    • recurring themes
    • moral lesson
    • predictable
    • Sometimes a quest
  30. 10 Principle for Improving the Reading Comprehension of Children
    • 1. Requires purposeful and explicit teaching - clear purposes, scaffolded teaching, use strategies (predicting, think aloud, attend to text structure, visual representations, questions and summarizing)
    • 2. Requires classroom interactions that support the understanding of specific texts - use varied techniques (discussion, writing in response to reading, multiple encounters with complex text)
    • 3. Starts before children read conventionally
    • 4. Teaches children the skills and strategies used by expert readers - text to self connections, prior knowledge (schema), reading within, about & beyond the text
    • 5. Requires careful analysis of text to determine its appropriateness for particular students and strategies - purposeful choice of text
    • 6. Builds on and results in knowledge, vocabulary and advanced language development - making text to self connections, using prior knowledge, focuses on vocabulary and teaching about words (morphology)
    • 7. Pervades all genres and school subjects
    • 8. Actively engages children in text and motivates them to use strategies and skills
    • 9. Requires assessments that inform instruction and monitor student progress
    • 10. Requires continuous teacher learning - teachers never stop learning from others and themselves
  31. What processes and strategies are required to be an active constructor of meaning as a reader?
    • Activate prior knowledge and connect to the text
    • Set Purposes
    • Predict
    • Decode Text
    • Summarize
    • Visualize
    • Question
    • Monitor understanding
    • Use Clarifying and Corrective strategies where needed
    • Reflect on and Apply the meaning
  32. Reading comprehension
    • techniques for improving students' success in extracting useful knowledge from text
    • understanding a text that is read, or the process of "constructing meaning" from a text.
    • the act of understanding and constructing meaning from written words.
    • The Process of Understanding the Meaning of Text
  33. 4 different types of QAR questions
    • 1. Right There - The answer is in the text and usually easy to find.
    • 2. Think and Search - The answer is in the selection, but you need to put together different pieces of information to find it.
    • 3. Author and You - The answer is not in the story. You need to think about what you already know, what the author tells you in the text and how it fits together.
    • 4. On My Own - The answer is not in the selection. You can even answer the question without reading the selection. You need to use your own experience. This question brings our their prior knowledge.
  34. Strategy for Teaching Comprehension - SQ3R
    • Survey - quickly look at the title, headings and any subheadings
    • Question - ask questions about the topics you have scanned
    • Read - chapter book, you would read the majority of the words; textbook, just read quickly for the key words
    • Recite - recite what you have read out loud
    • Review - writing down key facts from the chapter and reviewing it
  35. Mrs. Dell's Page shares Links about Reading Comprehension. What are 5 of them?
    • Author's purpose
    • Cause and Effect
    • Character's traits
    • Chronological Order
    • Inferences - drawing a conclusion or making a judgment
  36. What are some of the graphic organizers on the graphic organizer web page?
    • Cluster/Word web
    • Clock
    • Garden Gate
    • Sandwich
    • Spider
    • T Chart
    • KWS Chart
    • Observation Chart
    • 5 W's Chart
  37. Reading Comprehension Activities
    • 1. Make a picture of the 2-3 characters in the story. Cut them out, on the back list the traits, students can them play a character guessing game.
    • 2. Make a time-line of events either in pictorial or in written form.
    • 3. Pretend you're a news reporter and provide an oral broadcast of the story.
    • 4. Make a trivia game about the story.
    • 5. Make a jeopardy game about the story.
    • 6. Use puppets to help you re-tell the story.
    • 7. Make a comic strip of the story.
    • 8. Use a Venn to compare two characters in the story.
    • 9. Prepare a commercial to sell this book to somebody who hasn't yet read it.
    • 10. Design a new cover for this book.
  38. Cloze Format Assessment
    present sentences or passages with blanks in them
  39. Question-answering Format Assessment
    • the child reads passages and answers questions about them
    • the questions may involve multiple-choice or open-ended items and may be answered orally or in writing
  40. Retellings
    require a child to read a text and then orally tell an examiner about what was just read
  41. Suggestions for assessment of reading comprehension
    • Look for and use tests that are technically adequate.
    • If possible, use more than one test to assess reading comprehension performance.
    • Assess key component skills, and use the results of those assessments to interpret reading comprehension performance and plan instruction.
    • Take everyday classroom performance into account
    • Consider both current and upcoming grade expectations.
  42. Assesment . . .
    drives instruction!
  43. Letter Knowledge
    The Ability to Associate Sounds with Letters
  44. Assessment measures to test letter knowledge skills
    • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
    • Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment (ERDA)
  45. Phonemic Awareness
    The Ability to Hear and Manipulate Sounds in Words
  46. Assessment measures to test phonemic awareness skills
    • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)
    • DIBELS
    • ERDA
    • Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)
    • Phonological Awareness Test (PAT)
    • Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI)
  47. Decoding
    The Process of Using Letter-sound Correspondences to Recognize Words
  48. Assessment measures to test decoding skills
    • ITBS
    • PAT
    • TPRI
    • Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
  49. Fluency
    The Automatic Ability to Read Words in Connected Text
  50. Assessment measures to test fluency skills
    • Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)
    • DIBELS
    • Gray Oral Reading Test IV (GORT – 4)
    • TOWRE
    • TPRI
  51. Assessment measures to test reading comprehension skills:
    • Degrees of Reading Power (DRP)
    • ERDA
    • GORT-4
    • ITBS
    • TPRI
  52. Dr. Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
    • linguistic intelligence
    • logical-mathematical intelligence
    • visual-spatial intelligence
    • bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
    • musical intelligence
    • interpersonal intelligence
    • intrapersonal intelligence
    • naturalist intelligence
  53. Independent Reading Activities
    • 1. Rereading poems students have experienced in shared reading
    • 2. Rereading books previously experienced in shared reading
    • 3. Reading from individual book boxes - contains books that students have read in guided reading groups
    • 4. Reading from group book boxes - teacher selected from guided reading groups
    • 5. Reading with partners
    • 6. Reading with a partner - single texts
    • 7. Reading selections from the classroom library
  54. Support lower-performing students in independent reading by:
    • daily guided reading instruction
    • Assignments at the listening center to give them exposure to higher-level texts
    • Individual book boxes and browsing boxes with an assortment of books that they can read - both familiar and new
    • Support from older children and paraprofessionals
  55. Independent Reading
    Late Grade 1 through Early Grade 2
    • Students are beginning to read much longer texts
    • Expectations and scheduling are gradually adjusted so that more time is spent on reading and writing
    • Students should be choosing many books directly from the classroom library, reading longer texts, doing some connected writing
  56. Independent Reading
    Grade 2 Through Grade 8
    • Transition to 60-min reading workshop using the following structure:
    • Book talks and minilesson
    • Reading, conferring, and writing about reading
    • Sharing
    • Evaluation
  57. Classroom libraries are important because:
    • Students need to be surrounded by a variety of accessible books at all times
    • When students finish a book , they must be able to start another book immediately
    • Students need both school and classroom libraries if they are to have the necessary richness and variety of texts.
  58. Goal for a classroom library
    to make books accessible and inviting to your students
  59. ___________ is the key ingredient in independent reading.
  60. Categories for classroom library organization:
    • Award-winning books
    • New books
    • Books that feature word play
    • Books we/ve shared
    • Interesting characters or a series
    • Books of a particular period
    • Book pairs for partners to choose, read and discuss
    • Informational topics
    • Authors
    • Series books
  61. Important techniques to teach about book selection:
    • 1. Think about the topic of the book or the kind of story it seems to be. Does it sound interesting?
    • 2. Look at the illustrations if there are any. Do you like them? Do they make you want to read the book?
    • 3. What do you already know about this book?
    • 4. Look at the front cover. Does it look interesting? What are you going to expect based on the picture?
    • 5. Look at the back cover.
    • 6. Look inside the back (or front) cover. What does it say about the author?
    • 7. Think about the author. Do you know any other books by this author?
    • 8. Try the beginning and read a little from the middle. Do you know most of the words? Can you understand what is going on? Will it be Easy, Just Right, or Hard
  62. Book Talks:
    • Get the readers interested in the topic, author or genre
    • Speak directly to the readers
    • Are very short usually, taking less than a minute
    • Give children important information about the genre, title, topic and author
    • Provide a thumbnail sketch of the plot so that readers can anticipate the text
    • Sometimes provide some information about how challenging the book will be
  63. Characteristics of Effective Conferences:
    • They are one-on-one and have the feel of a real conversation
    • The student did a lot of the talking
    • They take place at the student's desk
    • The teacher and student sat side-by-side at the same eye level
    • The teacher listened to the student read a section of the text orally.
    • The student talked about the story
    • The teacher encouraged the reader and affirmed good thinking
    • The teacher sometimes helped clarify thinking about the text
    • The teacher gained valuable information to inform instruction
  64. Intentional Conversation
    Conversational moves directed toward a goal of instruction
  65. The talk before and after students read a text must always include a discussion of the ____________.
  66. Embedded Teaching
    Purposeful teaching that can occur during interactive read-aloud with intentional conversation.
  67. Teacher's Facilitative Talk
    Through commenting, demonstrating and questioning teachers:
    • Show readers how to express interpretations of texts
    • Prompt readers to consider many possible interpretations
    • Demonstrate making predictions and referring to evidence
    • Use evidence from personal experience or the text to make predictions
    • Prompt readers to examine texts closely
    • Ask for open-ended comments and responses
    • Share personal connections to texts
    • Let students in on some information that will elp them understand a text
    • Demonstrate connecting text in many different ways
    • Ask students why they think or feel something related to a text
    • Ask students to talk about any aspect of a text
    • Demonstrate and prompt for using personal experience or evidence from the text to support thinking
  68. Routines to Facilitate Talk During Interactive Read-Alouds
    • Interactive Read-Aloud
    • then
    • Pair talk (Think Pair Share)
    • Triad talk
    • Circle talk (Small Group)
    • then
    • Whole Group Text Discussion
  69. Teacher's facilitative talk engages students in using talk to share their ____________.
Card Set:
RDG 370

Test 1 - Dr. Page
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