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2011-10-05 09:16:26
Psychology Biology

AP Psychology 12'
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  1. Bio Psychology
    • A branch of psych concerened w/ links b/w bio and behavior.
  2. Neuron
    A nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system
  3. Sensory Neuron (AFFERENT)
    • (SRBSC)
    • Neurons that carry outgoing information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  4. Motor Neuron (EFFERENT)
    • Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
  5. Interneurons
    • Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
  6. Dendrite
    The bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  7. Axon
    The extension of a neuron ending branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  8. Myelin Sheath
    • A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses hops from one node to the next
  9. Threshold
    The level of stimulation requires to trigger a neural impulse
  10. Synapse
    The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
  11. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. They travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the reciving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
  12. Reuptake
    • A neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron
  13. Endorphins
    Morphine within natural opiate like neurotransmitter’s linked to pain control and to pleasure
  14. Nervous system
    • the body’s speedy electrochemical communication net-work consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
  15. Central nervous system
    The brain and spinal cord
  16. Peripheral Nervous system
    The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
  17. Nerves
    Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands and sense organs
  18. Somatic nervous system
    The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles also called the skeletal nervous system
  19. Autonomic nervous system
    The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs such a as the heart its sympathetic division arouses its parasympathetic division calms
  20. Sympathetic nervous system
    The division of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
  21. Parasympathetic Nervous system
    The division of the body conserving its energy
  22. Reflex
    A simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus such as the knee jerk response
  23. Endocrine system
    Thebody’s slow chemical commination system a set of glands that secrete hormonesinto the bloodstream
  24. Hormones
    Chemical messengers that are manufactures by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissue
  25. Adrenal Glands
    Pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress
  26. Pituitary Glands
    The endocrine systems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
  27. Lesion
    Tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a natuarally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
  28. EEG
    Records waves of electrical activityt that sweep across the brains surface hese waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
  29. CT
    series of x-ray photos taken from different angles and comined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
  30. PET
    a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain preforms a given task
  31. MRI
    a echnique that uses magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce computer genertated images of soft tissue
  32. Brainstem
    • Central core of brain
    • Responsible for automatic suurvival functions
    • oldest region
  33. Medulla
    • Base of brainstem
    • controls heart breat & breathing
    • Pons coordinate the movement
  34. Reticular formation
    • Nerve metwork in brainstorm
    • Conrtols arousal
  35. Thalmus
    • Brains sensory switchboard
    • Located at the top of the brainstem
  36. Cerebellum
    • "little brain"
    • Located at read of the brainstem
    • Processes sensory input & coordinating movement, output, & balance
  37. limbic system
    • located below the cerbral hemisphere
    • assocated w/ emotions and drives
    • Fear & anger
    • Food & Sex
  38. Amygdala
    • limabean shaped(2)
    • linked to emotions
  39. Hypothalmus
    • Located below the thalmus
    • eating, drinking, bad temp helps goven edrcine system via pituatiary gland is linked to emotion and reward
  40. Cerebral Cortex
    • The bodys ultimate control & INFO prosccesing center
    • Perciveing, thinking, speaking
  41. Glial Cells
    cell in nervous system that supports nourish & protects neurons
  42. Frontel Lobes
    • Just behind the forhead
    • speaking & muscle movement & in making plans & judgment
  43. Parietal Lobes
    • located on top part of the head tword the rear
    • recieves sensory input for touch & body post
  44. Occiptal Lobes
    • lies in the back of head
    • recieves INFO from visual areas
  45. Temporal Lobes
    • lies above ears includes audiotry areas
    • Recieves INFO from oppsite ears
  46. Motor Cortex
    • Its in the rear of frontal lobes
    • Controls voulantary movement
  47. Sensory Cortex
    • Located in front of parietal Lobes
    • Registers & proecesses bad touch & movement ssensation
  48. Association Areas
    • areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary mator or sensory functions
    • Remebering, thining, & speaking
  49. Aphasia
    • imparment of language/ expression
    • left frontal lobe
  50. Plasticity
    Brains ability to change especially during childhood by recognizing after damage or by buliding new pathways based on experience
  51. NeuroGenesis
    The formation of a new neuron that form everyday
  52. Corpus Collusm
    The large nad of neural fibers connnecting the 2 brains hemisphere & carrying messages between them
  53. Split brain
    condition after surgery isolates brains 2 hemispheres
  54. Cognitive Neuroscience
    • interdisplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
    • perception
    • thinking
    • memory
    • language
  55. Dual processing
    Information is often simaltaneaously processed on seperate concious & enconcious tracks
    • analytical
    • logic
    • language
    • science
    • math
    • Holistic thought
    • intuition
    • creativity
    • Art
    • Music