Misc Biochem: Proteins, Enzymes
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What is Lysyl hydroxylase?
An enzyme involved in metabolism of collagen fibers which results in one of the genetic variants of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
What is and where to find elastin?
Elastin is a connective tissue with rubber like properties. Foud in large arteries (aorta) and ligamentum flavum.
What is Desmosine cross link?
Substance composed of three allysyl side chains plus one unaltered lysyl side chain, to form an interconnected rubbery network- gives elastic tissue its elasticity.
What is Gulonolactone oxidase?
Enzyme necessary to catalyze the final enzymatic reaction in the synthesis of L-ascorbate (Vitamin C). Primates lack this enzyme
What are Ribozymes?
An enzyme made of RNA.
Describe the "active site" of an enzyme?
It is a site where the substrate binds, it's like a "puzzle" in that it has a specific three-dimmensional surface which is complementary to the substrate.
What is a ligand?
Any kind of molecule (fat, protein, etc.) that is bound to the surface of a protein by non-covalent forces.
How many times faster can an enzyme speed a reaction?
Enzyme catalyzed reactions can proceed from 105 to 1014 times faster than uncatalyzed reactions.
Why is compartmentalization important in a cell.
To isolate the reaction substrate or product from other competing reactions. For example, don't want to catabolize fatty acids in the same compartment in which they are formed.
What is a Lysosome
The principal site in a cell where intercellular digestion occurs. Trash compactors-get rid of unwanted material. Highly acidic environment
What is an apoenzyme?
It is an enzyme without its nonprotein moiety and is therefore inactive.
What is a Holoenzyme?
The active enzyme with its nonprotein component; therefore active.
What is a cofactor?
It is a metal, nonprotein moiety.
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