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The Irish immigrants who came in the middle of the 19th century
made the biggest impact on America's society
Irish immigration can be divided into 4 eras
- late 1840s to early 1850s
- 1850s through 1880s
- 1970s through 1980s
Similarities of all waves:
- All came for economic reasons - to escape poverty
- All were "ardent institution builders" in America
- Transformed American Catholic Churches into an Irish institution
- Permanent immigration
Irish immigrants weren't always Catholic. First immigrants were
Irish Revolution displaced traditional Catholic majority and minor Presbyterians. Catholic landowners lost ____, _____ became poor and they wanted to move out.
Economic change from ____ economy to commercial agriculture contributed to flow out of Ireland.
Irish ___ outnumbered ___
Irish settled more in ____ areas but some did settle in the _____.
Famine exodus : anyone who could afford to get out just left. There was no _____: where to go, when to go, who should go
Uniqueness of famine emigration
- Winter migration
- Equally divided between all ages and both genders
Irish Immigrants of Potato Famine
- Needed more assistance
- More dependent
- Felt trapped
- Settled mostly in New York, Boston and Philadelphia
Irish success in politics angered Americans
- Democratic party
- Superb timing - when cities began to take on more functions
Irish women worked as ____