Religion

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
106210
Filename:
Religion
Updated:
2011-10-03 22:13:05
Tags:
ChristDubstep
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Description:
Religion Midterm, CLWR
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  1. Archaeologists have found mother-goddess figures in the Middle East, indicating that fertility goddesses were worshiped in the Neolithic Period prior to the rise of cities.
    True
  2. With the invention of agriculture came the concept of property in the form of land, draft animals, and eventually humans (slaves); however, the historian Gerda Lerner posits that women's sexuality and reproductive capacity were the first "property" that tribes competed for.
    True
  3. Even though Mesopotamian states were patriarchal, they treated husbands and wives the same under divorce law, and adultery was penalized equally for both sexes.
    False
  4. Over time, the laws decreeing male control of women became increasingly harsh in the city-states of Mesopotamia.
    True
  5. The rise of agriculture and the development of property led to a change in social structure from patriarchy to matriarchy.
    False
  6. The status of women improved under patriarchy because men realized that women were a form of property they could exchange for other men's women.
    False
  7. With the development of agriculture and the establishment of cities, overall the status of women improved compared to their status in more primitive hunter and gatherer societies.
    False
  8. Patriarchy is based on patrilineal descent (children belongs to the lineage of their father rather than their mother) and reflects a desire to pass one's property on to one's (male) heirs.
    True
  9. Upper class women sometimes played an important role in the economic and political structure of a patriarchal society.
    True
  10. As patriarchy became established, a distinction emerged between "respectable" women who belonged to men of high status, as opposed to women who were sexually available (slaves, prostitutes, and concubines).
    True
  11. According to the laws set forth in Leviticus, men and women are of equal monetary worth.
    False
  12. According to Leviticus, any person who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be killed.
    True
  13. The Old Testament clearly condemns prostitution and the keeping of concubines.
    False
  14. According to Leviticus, only a woman can be rendered impure by menstruation.
    False
  15. Desire for her husband is part of Eve's punishment after the Fall.
    True
  16. Esther uses both her beauty and her intelligence in helping save the Jewish people.
    True
  17. At Jephthah's victory celebration his daughter is married to the son of the king.
    False
  18. Tamar is raped by Absalom.
    False
  19. The story of the concubine in Judges 19 teaches that men must protect the women of their family.
    False
  20. There are two different versions of the story of the creation of man in Genesis 1-3.
    True
  21. Contradictions in the New Testament can be explained if we accept the view that the followers of Jesus sometimes changed his teachings because they were so radical.
    True
  22. Among early Christians, celibacy gave moral authority to men but not to women.
    False
  23. Some groups of Jews practiced celibacy in preparation for the end of the world.
    True
  24. Thecla's engagement shows that marriages in the Roman world were based mainly on mutual love.
    False
  25. Divorce was unacceptable among the Jews.
    False
  26. When Thecla was thrown to the beasts, she was defended by a she-lion.
    True
  27. The followers of Jesus of Nazareth believed that the world as they knew it would soon end, making way for the Kingdom of God.
    True
  28. The Pagan Romans encouraged polygamy to enable the birth of as many children as possible.
    False
  29. The teachings of Jesus followed Pagan and Jewish tradition by strongly emphasizing a person's obligation to family.
    False
  30. Thecla's fiance was converted to Christianity by her steadfast refusal to marry him so long as he was a Pagan.
    False
  31. During the early centuries of the Christian Era, Christian teachings were more "pure" and simple than they are today.
    False
  32. Irenaeus, the Bishop of Lyon (c. 180 C.E.) composed a five volume work supporting the teachings of the gnostic Christians.
    False
  33. In "The Varieties of Religious Experience" the American philosopher and psychologist William James (brother of the novelist Henry James) argues that a religious text could have "truth value" even though it was written by fallible human beings. (See Pagel's "Epilogue.")
    True
  34. Valentinus, a Christian leader in Alexandria, Egypt (c. 140-160 C.E.), came to power within the orthodox church by attacking gnostic believers.
    False
  35. Gnostic Christians believed that they did not need the guidance of religious authorities (such as priests or bishops) but could seek spiritual knowledge (gnosis) through their own efforts.
    True
  36. Gnostic teachings have been compared to Hindu conceptions of the divine because they describe a divine being hidden deep within human nature, which is a spiritual potential that often remains untapped.
    True
  37. Gnostics can be regarded as forerunners to today's fundamentalist Christians because they believed in reading Genesis "literally."
    False
  38. Not all Gnostics claimed that celibacy was superior to marriage.
    True
  39. In the Gospel of Mary, Mary wept when Peter and Andrew accused her of making up teachings that were not truly from Jesus.
    True
  40. By the third century orthodox Christians considered Gnostic Christians dangerous, deviant heretics.
    True
  41. St. Anthony resisted all of the devil's temptations except for the time when the devil appeared in the shape of a woman.
    False
  42. Anthony became a martyr under the persecution of Christians by Maximinus.
    False
  43. During the period when St. Jerome wielded influence, the Catholic Church required priests to be celibate, and this rule was successfully enforced on all priests.
    False
  44. The story of Pinian and Melania exemplifies how becoming celibate went hand in hand with renouncing all power and influence.
    False
  45. With the decline in persecution of Christians after the conversion of Emperor Constantine in 312 C.E., some Christians who wanted to demonstrate their faith saw ascetic practices as an alternative to martyrdom.
    True
  46. Gregory of Nyssa wrote that the natural desire for children will always result in pain.
    True
  47. Saint Jerome extolled holy virginity and was himself a lifelong celibate monk.
    False
  48. Jovinian was excommunicated for arguing that celibacy was no holier than marriage.
    True
  49. Methodius' dramatic dialogue entitled "Symposium of the Ten Virgins" concludes that marriage is the path through which Christian women achieve complete freedom.
    False
  50. Saint Jerome wrote that God's love was the one thing that could cancel out the sin of a fallen virgin and raise her to a place of special honor in heaven.
    False
  51. In "The Ankle Bracelet" the execution of Kovalan was punishment for sins he committed against his wife--going off with a courtesan and spending all his wife's dowry on her.
    False
  52. Judith had to rely on her wisdom and intelligence because she was a very plain-looking woman.
    False
  53. Judith was a prostitute who was transformed into a heroine when she killed Holofernes.
    False
  54. Joan of Arc enjoyed a coddled upbringing as the daughter of a powerful noble family.
    False
  55. 'Aisha was in her twenties at the time when she consummated her marriage to the Prophet.
    False
  56. 'Aisha was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammed.
    False
  57. Shilappadikaram shows a wife's anger as righteous and powerful because her husband has wronged her.
    False
  58. Matriliny existed in Arabia at the time when Islam was founded.
    True
  59. Judith called upon God for strength before she beheaded Holofernes.
    True
  60. The fact that Joan dressed in men's clothing was an issue at her trial and one reason she was burned at the stake as a heretic.
    True
  61. Catholic Church officials unanimously admired Catherine for her extreme fasting.
    False
  62. Mira is revered for her motherhood.
    False
  63. Rabi'a considered God (Allah) to be her true lover.
    True
  64. Rabi'a lived a pure and holy life from the moment in her girlhood when her father received a message from the Prophet Muhammed in a dream.
    False
  65. As a new bride, Mira alienated herself from her husband's family when she refused to bow her head to her mother-in-law and to the goddess who was the family's chosen deity.
    True
  66. Some detractors suspected Catherine of being a witch who was secretly fed by the Devil.
    True
  67. While Catherine engaged in some ascetic practices as a young girl, she began to devote herself full-time to an ascetic, spiritual life after her beloved sister Bonaventura died in childbirth.
    True
  68. Rabi'a began her life in poverty, but she grew rich due to her skills as a musician and dancer.
    False
  69. Mira's devotion to Lord Krishna was second only to her love for her husband.
    False
  70. St. Catherine lived to a ripe old age and became a revered teacher, much like Thecla.
    False

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