Bio 9_ Chapter 5.txt

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Bio 9_ Chapter 5.txt
2011-10-03 22:35:02

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    • In what 5 major ways do species interact?
    • By interspecific competition, predation, coevolution, parasitism, and mutualism.
  1. What do species do when they cannot share limited vital resources?
    They either migrate, make a shift in feeding habits or behavior if another niche is available, the population drops, the species goes extinct, or there is intense competition.
  2. What are two predator strategies for carnivores?
    Pursuit or ambush.
  3. List the prey strategies.
    Evasion, alertness (senses), protection, camoflouge, mimicry, chemical warfare, or behavioral strategies.
  4. What is coevolution?
    Coevolution occurs when there is intense selective pressure between predator and prey, who constantly evolve to counter the advantageous traits of the other.
  5. Do hosts benefit form parasitism?
    No, only the parasite benefits. The host is harmed.
  6. True/False: in mutualism, both species benefit.
  7. What is commensalism?
    When only one species benefits from a relationship while the other receives little impact from it.
  8. What type of population distributions are there?
    There is clumping, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion.
  9. How do most populations disperse, and why?
    • Through clumping. Resources are not uniformly dispersed;
    • groups provide protection; packs give predators greater
    • success; and to temporarily mate or rear young.
  10. True/False: A population can grow indefinitely.
    False. Resources are limited.
  11. Define inter-specific competition.
    Competition for resources between species.
  12. Define intra-specific competition.
    Competition for resources within a species.
  13. How do you determine population size?
    (Births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration) = population size
  14. What are the limkits to poulation growth?
    Biotic potential, intrinsice rate of increase, nature, environmental resistance, carrying capacity, and exponential growth.
  15. When does dieback occur?
    When there is no switch to a new resource.
  16. Describe r-selected species.
    They have fast reproduction, and are opportunists.
  17. Describe k-selected species.
    They have slow reproduction rates, and are competitors.
  18. True/False: When r and k are in contact, k would win.
  19. True/False: Most species' reproductive cycles go to two extremes.
  20. What is ecological succession?
    A change in structure and species competition of communities and ecosystems in response to changing environmental conditions.
  21. Give an example of primary succession.
    Mt. St. Helen erupting.
  22. Give an example of secondary succession.
    A forest fire.
  23. What is the precautionary principle?
    The lack of predictable succession and equilibrium should not prevent conservation, and ecological degradation should be avoided.