Bio 9_ Chapter 7.txt

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Bio 9_ Chapter 7.txt
2011-10-03 22:37:05

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  1. What factors influence climate?
    Solar energy, earth's rotation, global air and water circulation, atmospheric gases, and earth's surface features.
  2. What 3 factors affect global air circulation?
    Uneven heating of Earth's surface, earth's rotation, and properties of air, water, and land.
  3. True/False: Due to the coriolis effect, fluid in the southern hemisphere will turn to the right.
    False. It will turn left.
  4. What happens to windward climate after ocean air crosses a mountain? Leeward?
    Windward, there is rain and snow. Leeward, a rain shadow occurs, meaning deserts.
  5. True/False: Global ocean currents do not affect regional climates.
  6. What causes a difference in water density?
    Cold and warm currents.
  7. What alters global ocean currents?
    Earth's rotation and continents.
  8. What does G.O.B's redistribute?
    Heat, nutrients, and oxygen.
  9. True/False: G.O.B's mix ocean water.
  10. What drives surface currents?
  11. How does the ocean move energy around the world?
    By having bottom and surface currents.
  12. True/False: The ocean and atmosphere are loosely linked.
    False. They are closely linked.
  13. What determines a biome?
    Average temperature and precipitation.
  14. Name the 3 types of deserts and grasslands.
    Tropical, temperate, and cold.
  15. What is necessary to survive the desert?
    You must beat the heat and conserve water.
  16. How do biota survive the desert?
    They have special adaptations.
  17. What types of forests are there?
    Tropical, temperate, and coniferous.
  18. True/False: A majority of the world's forests are in the mountains.
  19. How are mountains important to animals?
    They are a host to many endemic species, and are sanctuaries for some animal species.
  20. What do forests regulate?
  21. Forests are key in the __________ cycle.
  22. What effect have humans had on terrestrial ecosystems?
    They have disturbed most of the land, which 62% of is degraded or used unsustainably.
  23. True/False: Aquatic systems cover almost 3/5 of the earth's surface.
    False. 3/4 of the earth is covered by aquatic systems.
  24. What two major types of aquatic systems are there, and how much of the earth's surface does each cover?
    • Marine (saltwater) -70%
    • Freshwater -1%
  25. What organism is at the mercy of the currents?
  26. What types of plankton are there?
    Phyto (plant) and zoo (animal)
  27. What are nektons?
    Aquatic life that swim against the currents.
  28. What are bottom-dwellers called?
  29. What other aquatic life is there?
  30. What factors determine where aquatic life can live ?
    Temperature, access to sunlight, dissolved oxygen, food availability, and nutrient availability.
  31. True/False: Very little light penetrates the aphotic zone.
    False: No light penetrates the photic zone.
  32. Where does very little light penetrate?
    The euphotic zone.
  33. Where does light penetrate most?
    The photic zone.
  34. What color penetrates deepest?
  35. The ____ nutrient dense water get, the more light can enter deeper water.
  36. What are the major life zones of oceans?
    Coastal, open ocean, and benthos.
  37. Describe estuaries.
    Among most productive coastal zone. Where salt water meets fresh water.
  38. What is turbidity?
    The measure of suspended particles (silt)
  39. What is brackish?
    Part salty, part fresh water.
  40. What are mangrove forests?
    Tropical estuaries that provide an ecosystem and economic services. They face increasing human impact.
  41. How are coral reefs threatened?
    They face warming oceans and increased carbon dioxide in the oceans.
  42. How many have been destroyed or damaged?
    15% have been destroyed, 20% have been damaged.
  43. How many could be lost in the next 20-40 years?
  44. What threats are there to oceans?
    Coastal development, point and nonpoint source pollution, overfishing, habitat destruction, invasive species, and climate change.
  45. What is a lake with a large supply of of nutrients called?
  46. What is a poorly nourished lake called?
  47. Where do the lakes in between those extremes fall?
  48. What is cultural eutrophication?
    The acceleration of eutrophication of lakes by human inputs of nutrients and minerals from the atmosphere and from nearby urban and agricultural areas.