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Polymerase Chain Reaction
Denaturing (separating) of the two DNA strands by heating to 90-95o C
Annealing- tube is cooled to 55-65oC because primers cannot bind at high temperatures. Primers bind to DNA strand.
Elongation- make a complete copy of template. Temperature is raised because Taq polymerase works best at 72oC. Taq polymerase adds nucleotides to primers and eventually makes a copy.
Anneal to complementary DNA bases and determine the fragment of DNA that will be copied.
DNA piece of interest that is copied
Elongates the DNA strand. Adds nucleotides to primers and eventually makes a copy.
form the primer. Complementary base pairing
PCR used for:
- Paternity Testing
- Genetic Disease Diagnosis
white at the bottom of gel
more than 2 bands
Causes of no bands:
- not enough target DNA
- extraction didnt work
- forgot ingredients
What could be causing Eric's problem?
- thyroid gland isnt working
- pituitary gland has problems
- testes didnt mature
- adrenal glands are cancerous
is an important connection between the brain and the endocrine glands
Benign pituitary tumor
puts pressure on the pituitary and disrupted its functions
- Irradiation to kill the pituitary and any tumor associated
- Cartilage operation on his knee/ metal pins in both hips
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