Lecture Test 1

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Lecture Test 1
2011-10-04 00:00:42

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  1. Matrix
    • -The extracellular material of a tissue.
    • -The substance or framework within which other structures are embedded, such as fibrous matrix of a blood clot.
  2. Ground Substance
    -A clear gel
  3. Primary Germ Layers
    -The first tissues appear when these cells start to organize themselves into layers-first two and three strata.
  4. ectoderm
    -An outer layer that gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.
  5. endoderm
    -The inner-most layer, gives rise to the mucous membranes of digestive and repiratory tract among other things.
  6. mesoderm
    -Between the other two layers, a layer more loosely organized cells. Eventually turns into a geltinous tissue called mesenchyme.
  7. mesenchyme
    -What the mesoderm turns into. Composed of fine, wispy collagen (protien) fibers and branching mesenchymal cells embedded in gelatinous ground substance.
  8. Histological Sections
    -Microscope preparations that are thin. Are artificially colored to bring out detail.
  9. Fixative
    -A chemical such as formalin that prevents decay. This is what tissue specimens are preserved in.
  10. Stains
    -Enhance detail. Are artificially colored & bind to different components instead of leaving a grayish color.
  11. Longitudinal Section
    -Cut in long direction (top to bottom)
  12. Cross Section/Transverse Section
    -One cut perpindicular to longitudinal. (Side to side)
  13. Oblique Section
    -A section cut on a slant between a longitudinal and a cross section.
  14. Smears
    -Tissue is rubbed or spread across the slide rather than sliced.
  15. Spreads
    -Tissue is laid out on a slide, like placing a small square of tissue paper on a sheet of glass.
  16. Epithelial Tissue
    -A type of tissue consisting of one or more layers of closely adhering cells with little intracellular material and no blood vessels.
  17. Functions of Epithelial Tissue
    • -Protection-protects deeper tissues
    • -Secretion-hormones/mucous/sweat/enzymes
    • -Excretion-waste products.
    • -Absorption-absorbs chemicals
    • -Filtration-All substances that leave blood is filtered through epithelium
    • -Sensation-Provided with nerve endings(sense)
  18. Basement Membrane
    -Between the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue is the basement menbrane.
  19. Basal Surface
    -Surface of epithelial cell that faces basement membrane.
  20. Apical Surface
    -Surface that faces away from the basement membrane towards internal cavity.
  21. Simple Epithelium
    -One layer os cells
  22. Simple squamous
    -thin scaly cells
  23. Simple Cuboidal
    -squarish or round cells
  24. Simple Columnar
    -Tall narrow cells
  25. Pseudostratified Columnar
    -Not all cells reach surface shorter are covered by taller, but it's still considered a simple epithelium. Looks stratified.
  26. Goblet Cells
    -Wineglass-shaped cells that produce prtective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes.
  27. Stratified Epithelia
    -2-20 or more layers of cells with some cells resting directly on others & only deepest layer is attached to the basement membrane.
  28. Stratified Epithelium Types:
    • -stratified squamous
    • -stratified cuboidal
    • -stradified columnar
    • -transitional
  29. Exfoliation
    -Cells that die and separate from the surface of skin and flake off.
  30. Keratinized
    -Covered with a layer of compact, dead squamous cells. Found in epidermis.
  31. Nonkeratinized
    -Lacks the surface layer of dead cells. This type provides a surface that is abrasion resistant but also moist and slippery. EX: tongue, esophagus, vagina.
  32. Connective Tissue
    -Usually composed of more extracellular than cellular volume and usually with a subatantial amount of extracellular fiber.
  33. Connective Tissue Functions:
    • -Binding of organs
    • -Support
    • -Physical Protection
    • -Immune Protection
    • -Movement
    • -Storage
    • -Heat Production
    • -Transport
  34. Fibroblasts
    • -Large, fusiform cells that often show slender, wispy branches.
    • -They produce the fibers andground substance that for the matrix of tissue.
  35. Macrophages
    -Large phagocytic cells that wander through the CT where they engulf and destroy bacteria, other foriegn particles, and dead or dying cells of our own body.
  36. Leukoctes or white blood cells
    -Travel briefly in the blood stream then crawl out through walls of small blood vessels and spend most of time in CT.
  37. Plasme cells
    -Synthesis desease-fighting protiens called antibodies. Rarely seen except in the walls of intestines and inflamed tissues.
  38. Mast Cells
    -Found alongside blood vessels, secrete chemical called heparin that inhibits blood clotting, and one called histamine that increases blood flow by dilating blood vessels.
  39. Adipocytes
    • -OR fat cells.
    • -These appear in small clusters in some fibrous CT's.
  40. Collagen Fibers
    • -Made of collagen.
    • -Tough, flexible and resist stretching.
  41. Reticular Fibers
    -Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotien. They form a sponge-like famework for such organs as the spleen and lymph nodes.
  42. Elastic Fibers
    -Are thinner than collagenous fibers. They branch off and rejoin eachother along their course. Made of protien called elastin.
  43. Elastin
    -A protien that has a coiled structure that allows it to stretch and recoil.
  44. glycosaminoglcan
    -A long polysaccharide composed of unusual disaccharides.
  45. Chondroitin Sulfate
    • -Responsible for relative stiffness or cartilage.
    • -Most abundant Glycosaminoglycan(GAG)
  46. Proteoglycan
    -Another gigantic molecule. Shaped somewhat like a bottle brush with a central core of protien and bristle like outgrowths composed of glycosaminoglycans.
  47. Adhesive Glycoprotiens
    -Protien-carbohydrate complexes that bind plasma membrane protiens to collagen & proteoglycans outside the cell.
  48. Loose CT
    -Most of space is occupied by ground substance.
  49. Dense CT
    -Fiber occupies more space than the cells ground substance and appears closely packed into the tissue sections.
  50. Areolar Tissue
    -Exhibits loosely organized fibers, abundant blood vessels, and a lot of seemingly empty space.
  51. Reticular Tissue
    -A mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts.
  52. Dense Regular CT
    • -Collagen are packed closely and leave little open space.
    • -The fibers are parallel to each other.
    • -Found in tendons and ligaments.
  53. Elastic Tissue
    -Made up of dense regular CT.
  54. Dense Irregular CT
    -Has thick bundles of collagen with little room, but collagen bundles run in seemingly random directions.
  55. Adipose Tissue (Fat)
    -Tissue in which adipocyte are the dominant cell type.
  56. White Fat
    -More abundant and is the only significant adipose tissue of the adult body.
  57. Brown Fat
    -Found in fetus', infants, and children.
  58. Cartilage
    -Relatively stiff CT with a flexable rubbery matrix.
  59. Chondroblasts
    -What cartilage is produced by.
  60. Lacunae
    -Small cavities
  61. Chondrocytes
    -What cells are called when they are enclosed in the lacunae.
  62. Hyaline Cartilage
    -Clear, glassy microscopic appearance which stems from the usually invisible fineness of its collagen fibers.
  63. Perichondrium
    -A sheath of dense irregular CT that surrounds elastic and most hyaline cartilage.
  64. Osseous Tissue
    -Hard, Calcified CT the composes the skelton.
  65. Spongy Bone
    -Fills head of long bones & middle layer of flat bones.
  66. Compact bone
    Denser calcified tissue with no spaces visible to the naked eye.
  67. Central Canals
    -run longitudinally through the shafts of long bones such as the femur.
  68. Concentric Lamellae
    -onion-like layers around each central canal.
  69. Osteon
    -A central canal and it's surrounding lamellae
  70. Osteocytes
    -Tiny lacunae between lamellae are occupied by mature bone cells.
  71. Canaliculi
    -Delicate canals radiate from each lacunae to its neighbors and allows the osteocytes to contact eachother.
  72. Periosteum
    -Tough fibers that cover bone; similar to the perichondrium of cartilage.
  73. Blood
    -A fluid CT that travels through tubular blood vessels.
  74. Blood Plasma
    -This is blood's ground substance of CT
  75. Formed Elements
    -Cellular components of blood plasma.
  76. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
    -Most abundant. Look like pink discs w/ thin center.
  77. Platelets
    -Small cell fragments scattered amid the blood cells.
  78. Excitable Tissues