Card Set Information
What is meningitis?
An infection of the meninges-the covering of the brain and spinal cord
Can be bacterial, viral, parasitical
Basillar skull fx
Impaired immune function
Etiology & patho.
Infection of meninges & CSF
Infection causes inflammatory response in meninges
Results in meningeal congestion, cerebral edema, increased ICP
Types of meningitis?
Can cause brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities- even when treated quickly
Death can occur within 48 hrs even if treated
Confusion, altered LOC
Restlessness, agitation, irritability
Abd & back pain
Stiff neck-nuchal rigidity
Fever & chills
S/S increasing ICP
What is Kernigs sign?
Pain and/or resistance occurs c flexion of the knee and hip and straightening of the knee in the supine position
What is Brudzinskis sign?
Pain, resistance & hip & knee flexion occur when neck is flexed to the chest while lying supine
What is Opisthotonos?
A titanic spasm where head and heels are bent backward and body is bowed forward
In severe cases of meningitis.
Manifestations of ICP.
change of LOC
blurred vision, decreased visual acuity, diplopia
headache, papilledema (swelling of optic disc), vomiting
Planning & imlementation
Assess neuro status/VS regularly
Assess changes in neuro status, presence of cranial nerve dysfunction
Assess/prepare for seizures
Assess for increased ICP
Admin meds/maintain fluid restrictions
Assess for fluid volume deficits
Monitor I&O, DW, skin turgor, labs, urine concentration
Diagnostic tests for meningitis.
Culture of CSF ID's causative organism
Culture of blood, urine, nose, throat
CT scan of head
High dose, broad spectrum antibiotics initially
Patient teaching for meningitis.
Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for close contacts
Vaccinations for pediatric
S/S to look for
Management of present illness