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what are the agents of socialization?
- peer groups
- mass media
who made the biological throies of socialization?
who made the psychology theories of socialization?
who made the sociology theories of socialization?
- started sociobiology
- war, peace, envy, competition and cooperation are believed to be rooted in our genes
- everything explained genetically
- studied effect of social isolation on rhesus monkeys. Isolation at young age caused fear and hostility when introduced to others later in life.
- if you arent exposed to other human beings will not have the same attributes
- biologists argue that we cannot be resocialized
- personality is largely submerged in the unconscious
- argued conflict is important
- dont know whats really driving us to do what we do
- revealed that there is more going on in our minda than we think
- described the human mind as being in conflict between deep desires and demands placed upon us by society
according to freud what are 3 parts of the brain ? (explain)
- Id-self interested
- dmand immediate gratification
- pleasure principle
- ex: i want that candy bar not matter what
- superego- part of mind that has internalized society norms
- personal conscious
- ex: stealing is wrong in society
- Ego: balance ID and superego
- reality principle
- ex: i will have to save money in order to buy the candy bar
according to freud what are the stages of development? (explain)
- oral: dependent, smoker, drinker
- anal: excessively orderly, stubborn, overly generous
- phallic: homosexuality
- failure to progress through each stage will result in personality disorders
explain piaget theory:
- children go through stages:
- -sensorimotor (sensory contact)
- -preoperational (begin to use symbols)
- -concrete operational (take role of others)
- -formal operational (abstract thought)
explain kohlberg theory:
- stages of moral developement:-preconventional (punishment & obedience)
- -conventional (peer influence primary)
- post conventional (moral conduct/ human rights)
explain gilligan theory:
- critical of kohlberg
- moral development is gendered
- male more concerned with law and order
- female more concerned with social consequences of social relationships
explain cooley theory:
- introduced idea of looking slef glass suggesting that te gestures and reaction of others are a mirror or "looking glass" in which we see ourselves
- first image of self is recieved from significant others such as parents
- structure and content of self are derived from society which is represented by groups and significant others surrounding the individual
explain Mead's theory:
- three stages in taking the role of the other:egocentric stage- inability to take on role of others
- imitative stage- imitate others ( children)
- play stage- adopt role of siginificant others-play shift from imitative to imaginative
- game stage-child gains understanding of social expectations and rules
explain "Me" and "I"
- me- objective part of self
- percieve ourself from standpoint of others
- I- subjective component
- active component initiates action
- generalized other- how people in general respond in a situation
explain goffman theory:
- we are given roles and scripts and we put on a role performance. true selves on backstage
- examined how people may be scialized against their will
- in total institutions such as prisons where people isolated from society and regulated under one authority
what do psychologists stress?
personality is relatively permanent over the course of the life
what do socioligists tend to concentrate on?
social causes of human behaviour
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