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chapter 3 chemistry test prep.
Name the three major particles in the atom.
protons, electrons, nuetrons
Describe the properties (relative mass, size, charge) of each particle.
- relative mass ~0 amu, 0.00055amu , -1 charge
- ~1amu , 1.00727 amu, +1
- ~1 amu, 1.00867 amu, 0
.-Atoms of an element with different mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons.
it is the smae element but just has a difference in number of neutrons, the wieght change of the atom is taken lightly though.
Describe the energy levels inside the atom.
Each atom has 4 energy levels (atleast as far as we are studying)
Explain atomic orbitals.
Orbitals are made up of two revolving electrons. the orbitals are classified into S, P, D type.
The S can hold one orbital so it holds two electrons.
P, has three orbitals so it can hold six elec.
D, has five orbitals so it holds ten elec.
Write electron configurations.
Electron configuration is simply putting the obital shell letter and how many electrons filled that level.
ex. Lithium has an atomic number of three which means it has three electrons. So the configuration would be,
Preict the number of valence electrons.
Valence electrons are the electrons that fill the outer-most shell in an atom.
: not in each subatomic level, were looking at the whole level. Ex. 1st level, 2nd level...etc.
So the valence electrons in Oxygen is 6.
Predict the number of electrons and protons based on the atomic number.
Atomic number tells you how many electrons are in the element, and protons are the same number.
Explain the difference between mass number and atomic mass.
Atomic mass refers to the wieght of an one isotope.
mass number is an average of all the isotopes within an element.
Write symbols of elements and isotopes.
Determine the atomic number, atomic mass and symbol for elements by using the periodic table.
atomic number is at the top
symbol in the middle
atomic mass at the bottom
Determine representative, transition, and inner transition elements.
representative- from H to Be column, and B to He columns.
Inner transition-elements that are usually taken out of the main table and placed below, starting with La.
Transition elements- the middle of the table, remaining elements.
Determine the number of protons and electrons for each element.
The atomic number tells the number of electrons and protons.
Classify elements into metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
Metals- first two columns in table (except H) and staggered through the right side (Al, Ga, Sn, Bi, Po).
Nonmetals-Hydrogen included, and staggered on the right side(C, P, Se, I, At) and everything to the right of them.
Metalloids- (B, Si, Ge,As, Sb, Te) staggered between metals and noble gases.
Determine the symbol of the element on the basis of group and periodic designations.
group is the the column
period is the row
Determine relative size of the elements in same group or in a same period.
the more electrons ( the higher the atomic number) the smaller the atom (element)
Determine halogens, noble gases, alkaline earth metals and alkali metals.
Halogens-F, Cl, Br, I, At
Noble gases- He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Alkaline earth metals- Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
Alkali-Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr