test development and

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  1. Purposes of Testing
  2. Objective standard of performance
    • Self assessment for learners
    • Self assessment for instructors
    • Motivating tool
  3. Placement
    Assess pre-requiste skill and knowledge
  4. Assess pre-requisite skills and knowledge
  5. Formative
    Cover a limited amount of information
  6. Summative
    Assess mastery of instructional material
  7. Testing platforms
    Written, computerized, oral, and practical exams
  8. Norm referenced testing
    Achievement based on performance of others
  9. Criterion referenced testing
  10. Assesses mastery by achieving predetermined minimal competencies
  11. Pitfalls of tests?
    Does not match objectives, is subjective and assess lower level cognitive skills
  12. How to assess higher cognitive skills
    apply, analyze and evaluate. Provide data and ask for analysis
  13. Test type ojective
    Multiple choice, true and false, matching
  14. Test type subjective
    Short answer/essay
  15. What is a stem?
    It is a direct question or an incomplete statement.
  16. Advantage of multiple choice
    Easy to make and greater sampling
  17. Disadvantage of multiple choice?
    Difficult to create and tends to use recall
  18. Multiple choice guidelines
    Students should select best answer and should be based on facts not trivia.
  19. Multiple choice guidelines for stem?
    clearly worded and concise and in a positive tone
  20. A stem is qualified using what statement in comparisons?
    "of the following"
  21. How to decrease the opportunity for guessing in a multiple choice question?
    develop 4-5 responses for each item and agree in tense and grammer
  22. Clues in multiple choice questions that the statement could be false would be terms like?
    always, never, none, or all
  23. Multiple choice guidelines length of correct and distractors
    Need to be similiar in length, complexity and format, however, correct answer is usually longer
  24. None of the above and all of the above are used?
  25. Should the answer be placed in the same location every time? or
    Random :)
  26. Multiple choice guidelines
    answers placed one below each other, instructor should think like a student and if an opinion should be stated in the stem, units expressed in same manner and increasing or decreasing order
  27. True and false advantage and disadvantage?
    fast to take. Promotes guessing.
  28. True/False Guidelines
    statement should be as unambiguous as possible so that it is clearly true or false.
  29. True/False Guidelines
  30. may and sometimes to be avoided since they are associated with true statements.
  31. one way to minimize guessing on true/fasle
    correct false statements.
  32. Matching Test advantages and disadvantages
    • Good in testing a large amount of information.
    • Bad in that it promotes memorization
  33. Matching Guidelines
    State in the instructions whether an item can be used more than once and arrange columns logically, add extras to minimize guessing and keep on same page.
  34. Subjective short answer/essay advan/disadv
  35. easy to make, for assessing higher cognitive skills
    difficult to grade, limited sampling and subjective
  36. Subjective guidelines
    Place points for each on side, set time limit, do not allow choice, balance of lower and higher cognitive questions
  37. Subjective guidelines
    Have test grader by another instructor, do not look at student name, grade each answer at the same time.
  38. test and item analysis
    • types
    • Test analysis: distribution of grades, mean
    • Items: Pass rate, distribution of responses. Often computer generated
  39. Difficulty Index
    • Pass rate for that item, 40-95% usual
    • 100% if critical competence
  40. Discrimination Index?
    Ranges from +1 to -1
  41. What does the discrimination index mean?
    Indicates how well the item discriminated between good and poor performers
  42. A negative discrimination index means?
    means more poor performers got the item correct than good performers
  43. Test reliability
    Consistency of test scores, 60-80%
  44. Test reliability can be affected by
    Quality of items, # of items, grading objecgtivity, the physical and emotional state of test taker.
  45. Test validity is measured by?
    Content and criterion.
  46. Evaluating Test Effectiveness
  47. Relevant and balanced, test length appropriiate,grading objective? test discriminate between high and low achievers, test difficult enough to be challenging, test reliable and valid.
  48. Test analysis enables instructor to
    compare the performance of one group to another.
  49. How is the comparison made?
    Statistics from mean and range scores.
  50. determining effectiveness and appropriateness of a test question
    if answered incorrect by majority of takers, further inspection.
  51. Should the test identify between high and low achieving learners?
  52. Measurements of central tendancy
    Mode, median, mean.
  53. Mode?
    Score that occurs most often.
  54. Median
    Divides the distribution of test scores in half. good central tendancy for test scores that are skewed/small groups also
  55. Mean?
    The mean is an average score. All scores are divided by the test takers IT IS THE MOST STABLE STATISTIC.
  56. What can effect the mean
    Extreme values and skewed distributions.
  57. Which of the central tendacy is most commonly used?
  58. Dispersion determines whether the scores
    Homogeneous and heterogenous
  59. A simple measure of dispersion is
  60. Rnage #'s are
    is the difference between the highest and lowest scores.
  61. Range is limited in its measurements due to
    Influenced by extreme values and not the majority of the scores.
Card Set:
test development and
2011-10-04 18:44:30
test development analysis

objective and subjective
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