test development and
Card Set Information
test development and
test development analysis
objective and subjective
Purposes of Testing
Objective standard of performance
Self assessment for learners
Self assessment for instructors
Assess pre-requiste skill and knowledge
Assess pre-requisite skills and knowledge
Cover a limited amount of information
Assess mastery of instructional material
Written, computerized, oral, and practical exams
Norm referenced testing
Achievement based on performance of others
Criterion referenced testing
Assesses mastery by achieving predetermined minimal competencies
Pitfalls of tests?
Does not match objectives, is subjective and assess lower level cognitive skills
How to assess higher cognitive skills
apply, analyze and evaluate. Provide data and ask for analysis
Test type ojective
Multiple choice, true and false, matching
Test type subjective
What is a stem?
It is a direct question or an incomplete statement.
Advantage of multiple choice
Easy to make and greater sampling
Disadvantage of multiple choice?
Difficult to create and tends to use recall
Multiple choice guidelines
Students should select best answer and should be based on facts not trivia.
Multiple choice guidelines for stem?
clearly worded and concise and in a positive tone
A stem is qualified using what statement in comparisons?
"of the following"
How to decrease the opportunity for guessing in a multiple choice question?
develop 4-5 responses for each item and agree in tense and grammer
Clues in multiple choice questions that the statement could be false would be terms like?
always, never, none, or all
Multiple choice guidelines length of correct and distractors
Need to be similiar in length, complexity and format, however, correct answer is usually longer
None of the above and all of the above are used?
Should the answer be placed in the same location every time? or
Multiple choice guidelines
answers placed one below each other, instructor should think like a student and if an opinion should be stated in the stem, units expressed in same manner and increasing or decreasing order
True and false advantage and disadvantage?
fast to take. Promotes guessing.
statement should be as unambiguous as possible so that it is clearly true or false.
may and sometimes to be avoided since they are associated with true statements.
one way to minimize guessing on true/fasle
correct false statements.
Matching Test advantages and disadvantages
Good in testing a large amount of information.
Bad in that it promotes memorization
State in the instructions whether an item can be used more than once and arrange columns logically, add extras to minimize guessing and keep on same page.
Subjective short answer/essay advan/disadv
easy to make, for assessing higher cognitive skills
difficult to grade, limited sampling and subjective
Place points for each on side, set time limit, do not allow choice, balance of lower and higher cognitive questions
Have test grader by another instructor, do not look at student name, grade each answer at the same time.
test and item analysis
: distribution of grades, mean
: Pass rate, distribution of responses. Often computer generated
Pass rate for that item, 40-95% usual
100% if critical competence
Ranges from +1 to -1
What does the discrimination index mean?
Indicates how well the item discriminated between good and poor performers
A negative discrimination index means?
means more poor performers got the item correct than good performers
Consistency of test scores, 60-80%
Test reliability can be affected by
Quality of items, # of items, grading objecgtivity, the physical and emotional state of test taker.
Test validity is measured by?
Content and criterion.
Evaluating Test Effectiveness
Relevant and balanced, test length appropriiate,grading objective? test discriminate between high and low achievers, test difficult enough to be challenging, test reliable and valid.
Test analysis enables instructor to
compare the performance of one group to another.
How is the comparison made?
Statistics from mean and range scores.
determining effectiveness and appropriateness of a test question
if answered incorrect by majority of takers, further inspection.
Should the test identify between high and low achieving learners?
Measurements of central tendancy
Mode, median, mean.
Score that occurs most often.
Divides the distribution of test scores in half. good central tendancy for test scores that are skewed/small groups also
The mean is an average score. All scores are divided by the test takers IT IS THE MOST STABLE STATISTIC.
What can effect the mean
Extreme values and skewed distributions.
Which of the central tendacy is most commonly used?
Dispersion determines whether the scores
Homogeneous and heterogenous
A simple measure of dispersion is
Rnage #'s are
is the difference between the highest and lowest scores.
Range is limited in its measurements due to
Influenced by extreme values and not the majority of the scores.