stress & strain.txt

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Author:
jpowell22
ID:
106407
Filename:
stress & strain.txt
Updated:
2011-10-06 15:50:55
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maureen
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Description:
lecture 4, 10-3-11
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  1. What is a force applied per unit area?
    stress
  2. What term is used when stress produces a change in length of a structure?
    strain
  3. What is the formula for % change in length?
    change in length over original length
  4. Very little force if required to elongate the tissue, but as more force is applied, the % of elongation does what?
    decreases
  5. What are the 3 stages to structural lengthening?
    elastic, plastic, and rupture
  6. What happens during the elastic portion?
    requires little force and time, after the phase the structure will return to the normal shape -rubber band
  7. What happens during the plastic portion?
    requires more force and time, when phase is over the gained length is lost almost instantly, however a portion of it remains permanent (doesnt completely go back to original shape) -balloon
  8. What portion requires little time and force?
    elastic
  9. What portion requires more time and force?
    plastic
  10. What happens during the rupture portion?
    the structure fails - car accident, repeated strain and stress; runners, sprained ankle...
  11. Tissues respond to what 5 things dealing with stress?
    • compression
    • tension
    • shearing
    • torsion
    • bending
  12. What is compression?
    compressive forces making things shorter
  13. What is tension?
    elongation of tissues - traction force
  14. What is shearing?
    side to side (sliding) force, parallel surfaces sliding
  15. What is torsion?
    twisting, rotary force, using lots of planes
  16. What is bending?
    angular motion, onmly using 1 plane
  17. Bodies need a certain amount of what to be healthy?
    stress
  18. What is chondrogenesis?
    inital loading, building cartilage (when baby)
  19. What is osteogenesis?
    continual loading, making bone (exercise)
  20. What is the functional adaption of bone to stress?
    Wolff's law
  21. What is the forces that occur in bone that cause the bone to grow and thicken better than tension (elongating)?
    compression
  22. What in bones will start to have a negative effect?
    increased compression
  23. What helps increase bone density, but if you go overboard will cause body damage?
    high intensity exercise
  24. What can cause a change in direction of growth caused by compression or structural problems?
    unequal loading
  25. What is the name for knock kneed?
    genu valgum
  26. What is the name for bow legged?
    genu varum
  27. What causes bone fractures?
    rapid overload
  28. How does normal tension affect cartilage?
    cartilage needs normal healthy stress and strain, it will become thicker and stronger
  29. What results in degeneration, tearing, or fraying of cartilage?
    excessive compression (knees receives a lot)
  30. What happens in the absence of compression in cartilage?
    results in atrophy
  31. What leads to tearing or fraying in cartilage?
    rapid or chronic overload
  32. What does a ligament connect?
    bone to bone
  33. What does a tendon connect?
    muscle to bone
  34. In ligamentsand tendons, what increases size, thickness, and strength?
    normal overload of tension
  35. If there is a lack of loading after immobilization, what happens?
    atrophy, decreased strength...set yourself up for injury
  36. What does a healthy load of exercise do to tendons and ligaments?
    increase size and strength
  37. What is the "stretch/creep rule"?
    stretching/lengthening; serial casting (repeat casting after gaining new length)
  38. What is better for artificial joints or ligaments?
    natural material bc its stronger and better than man made

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