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a naturally ocurring altered state of consciousness characterized by decreases in awareness and responsiveness to stimuli
awareness of the environment is maintained but motor or cognitive response is decreased.
non rapid eye movement
Rapid eye movement
NREM and REM are
cycled through several times while a persons sleeping.
what are the phases of sleep?
- 1: light sleep, easily arroused, lasts a few minutes, feel relaxed and drowsy. person may say that they weren't asleep.
- 2: deeper relaxation, lasts 10-20 minutes vs. continue to decrease
- 3. early phase of deep sleep, difficult to arouse, little or no movement. lasts 15-30 minutes growth horomone and serotonin released.
- 4. deepest sleep, shortens toward morning, lasts 15-30 minutes vs very low difficult to awaken growth horomone released.
- 5. REM - rapid eye movement
obstructive sleep apnea is:
muscles in the upper airway relax occluding the airway.
the following cause obstructive sleep apnea:
- jaw structure
- enlarged soft tissue airway
symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea are:
- daytime sleepiness
- apneic periods reported by partner
- restless sleep
shift work disorder is
jet lag usually worse when traveling east to west.
horomonal dysynchrony is
the adjustment of horomones to alterations in the timing of the sleep period.
what are the stage one physiologic and biochemical correlates
- muscles are relaxed
- eyes display rolling movements
- respirations are even
- pulse rate is decreased
stage two physiologic and biochemical correlates
eyes may appear to roll
stage three physiologic and biochemical correlates
- muscles are very relaxed but tone is maintained
- respirations are even
- growth horomone and serotonin are released
stage 4 physiologic and biochemical correlates
- blood pressure, temperature, pulse rate, urine secretion, and oxygen consumption of muscles are decreased.
- growth horomone released
- snoring may occur
stage 5 physiologic and biochemical correlates
- muscles are at lowest tone
- blood pressure, pulse, vaginal secretions, cerebral blood flow, and oxygen consumption are increased.
- repirations fluctuate
- episodic cortisol and ACTH and catecholamines are released
stage 1 dreaming and awareness
- person may feel a sense of floating or see idle images.
- if person is awakened may say he or she was not asleep.
stage 2 dreaming and awareness
person awakens easily and may report that he or she was thinking or daydreaming
stage 3 dreaming and awareness
dreams are less dramatic more realisic and may lack plot. person requires stronger stimuli to awaken.
stage 5 dreaming and awareness
dreams have vivid content full color sounds implausible settings. may involve a sense of paralysis. person is difficult to awaken except with significant stimuli.
what is the main reason for shoft works disturbed sleep?
the dysynchrony of trying to sleep at times when the body's circadian rhythm is set for wakefulness.
who adjusts to shif work better?
those who are younger and are more evening people.
the accumulated sleep debt may lead to
compromised clinical judgement and decision making.