The _____________ is the space bounded by the abdominal walls, diaphragm, and pelvis.
The abdominal cavity is
Enclosed anterolaterally by dynamic musculo-aponeu-rotic abdominal walls
Separated superiorly from the thoracic cavity by thediaphragm
Under cover of the thoracic cage superiorly extending tothe fourth intercostal space
Continuous inferiorly with the pelvic cavity
Lined with peritoneum, a serous membrane
The location of most of the digestive organs, spleen,kidneys, and ureters for most of their course
What are the three flat muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
External oblique, the superficial muscle:
Its fibers pass inferomedially and interdigitate with slips of the serratus anterior. The inferior margin is thickened as an under-curving fibrous band that spans between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle as the inguinal ligament
Internal oblique, the intermediate muscle:
Its fibers fan out so that its upper fibers are perpendicular and its lower fibers are parallel to those of the external oblique.
Transversus abdominis, the innermost muscle:
Its fibers, except for the most inferior ones, run more or less horizontally.
The aponeuroses interweave, forming a midline raphe (G. rhaphe,suture, seam), the _____________ (L.white line), which extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis.
__________________, a small triangular muscle (absent in about 20% of people), that lies in the rectus sheath anterior to the inferior part of the rectus abdominis. Itends in the linea alba and tenses it.
What are the six common causes of abdominal protrusion?